International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

The Emergent Nature of National REDD+ Design: Lessons from Kenya

Author Affiliations

  • 1UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
  • 2College of Environmental Science and Engineering,Tongji University, Shanghai, China
  • 3Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai, China

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 5, Issue (4), Pages 8-17, April,22 (2016)


Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, conserving and enhancing forest carbon stocks and sustainably managing forests (REDD+) is an important pillar of the post 2012 international climate change regime. However, since REDD+ is a highly contextual concept, national design and implementation strategies are taking different forms and approaches. Taking Kenya as a case, this study examined the influence of legacy forest governance on national REDD+ design by developing and using the Forest Governance – REDD+ Analytical Framework. The resultant findings show that legacy forest governance regimes and issues have had a significant influence on national REDD+ design, with the focus being on solving the existing forest governance issues before adopting alternative options altogether. This study thus contributes to the growing body of knowledge on the emerging nature of national REDD+ design, and the subsequent influence of legacy forest governance on its design.


  1. Corbera E. and Schroeder H. (2011)., Governing and implementing REDD+., Environmental Science and Policy, 14(2), 89-99.
  2. UNFCCC (2015)., Background., Land use and climate change.
  3. McDermott C.L., Coad L., Helfgott A. and Schroeder H. (2012)., Operationalizing social safeguards in REDD+: actors, interests and ideas., Environmental Science and Policy, 21(0), 63-72.
  4. RRI (2014)., Status of Forest Carbon Rights and Implications for Communities, the Carbon Trade, and REDD+ Investments., undefined
  5. Corbera E., Estrada M., May P., Navarro G. and Pacheco P. (2011)., Rights to Land, Forests and Carbon in REDD+: Insights from Mexico, Brazil and Costa Rica., Forests, 2(1), 301-342.
  6. Gregersen H., El Lakany H., Karsenty A. and White A. (2010)., Does the Opportunity Cost Approach Indicate the Real Cost of REDD+ ? Rights and Realities of Paying for REDD+, Rights and Resources Initiative., undefined
  7. Star S.L. and Greisemer J.R. (1989)., Institutional ecology, ‘Translations’ and boundary objects: amateurs and professionals in Berkeley’s museum of vertebrate zoology., Social Studies of Science, 19(1907-39), 387-420.
  8. Biermann F. and Betsill M.J.G. (2009)., Earth System Governance: People, Places and the Planet. Science and Implementation Plan of the Earth System Governance Project., The Earth System Governance Project.
  9. Biermann F., Betsill M., Gupta J., Kanie N., Lebel L., Liverman D., Schroeder H., Siebenhüner B. and Zondervan R. (2010)., Earth system governance: a research framework., Int Environ Agreements, 10 (4), 277-298.
  10. MEMR (2013)., A Corruption Risk Assessment for REDD+ in Kenya, Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources, undefined
  11. GoK (2013)., National Climate Change Action Plan., Ministry of Environment, W. a. N. R., Keny.
  12. FAO (2010)., Global forest resources assessment., Country report: Kenya
  13. Salira M. (2014)., Africa: Kenya, All Africa Global Media.
  14. Sena K. (2012)., Operationalising Free, Prior and Informed Consent Within REDD+ Projects in Kenya., Conservation International
  15. Kairu F. and Maneno M. (2012)., Public participation: kenya, Adili.
  16. KWS (2009)., Report of the Prime Minister, Kenya Wildlife Service: Nairobi, Kenya
  17. Mogoi J., Obonyo E., Ongugo P., Oeba V. and Mwangi E. (2012)., Communities, property rights and forest decentralisation in Kenya: Early lessons from participatory forestry management., Conservation and Society, 10 (2).
  18. World Bank (2013)., REDD Readiness Progress Fact Sheet., Country: Kenya, World Bank.
  19. World Bank (2013)., REDD Readiness Progress Fact Sheet., COUNTRY: KENYA.
  20. Ongugo P., Njuguna J., Obonyo E. and Sigu G. (2011)., Livelihoods, Natural Resource Entitlements and Protected Areas: The Case Of Mt., Elgon Forest in Kenya, Kenya IFRI Collaboratve Research centre
  21. Tamang P. (2005)., An Overview of the Principle of Free, Prior and Informed Consent and Indigenous Peoples in International and Domestic Law and Practices,, United Nations
  22. Gichu A. (2010)., Consultation, Participation and Outreach Plan for the Kenya RPP., World Bank.
  23. Banana A., Ongugo P., Bahati J., Mwangi E. and Andersson K. (2008)., Resource, recourse and decisions: incentive structures in forest decentralisation and governance in East Africa., undefined
  24. RoK (2010)., Revised REDD Readiness Preparation Proposal, Kenya., Republic of Kenya
  25. REDD (2010)., Carbon Rights in REDD+ and their implications in East Africa., REDDnet, (2).
  26. Biermann F. and Gupta A. (2011)., Accountability and legitimacy in earth system governance: A research framework., Ecological Economics, 70(11), 1856-1864.
  27. Oskanen T., Gachanja M. and Blassten A. (2011)., Strategy Note for Forest Governance Reform in Kenya., INDUFOR: Helsinki, Finland
  28. Baseline Report of Clean Cooking Fuels in the East African (2015). WorldBank (n.d). Fact Sheet: The World Bank and Agriculture in Africa. WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/AFRICAEXT/0,,contentMDK:21935583~pagePK:146736~piPK:146830~theSitePK:258644,00.html (accessed 19 October)., undefined, undefined
  29. Bernard F. and Minang P. (2011)., Strengthening Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) for REDD+, International Institute for Sustainable Development.
  30. Rose N. (2011)., Forest carbon rights in REDD+ countries: A snapshot of Africa., Norton Rose.
  31. Bouyer O. and Gachanja M. (2013)., Carbon Rights and Benfit-Sharing for REDD+ in Kenya.UN REDD Programme., undefined
  32. IIED (2013)., Carbon rights legislation: not yet ready for private sector REDD+., International Institute for Environment and Development
  33. UNFCCC (2005)., Background., Land use and climate change. Retrieved from redd/items/8180.php