Permaculture: An approach to sustainability in urban and rural context
- 1Department of Urban Planning, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi
- 2Department of Urban Planning, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi
Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 9, Issue (2), Pages 39-43, April,2 (2020)
Increasing urbanization is leading to an alarming rate of unsustainable human activities. It is more crucial now than at any other time given the scenario of degradation of resources currently reached, that development occurs whilst making sustainable societies that can harmonize agreeably with the indigenous habitat. This paper aims to establish that there are rational closer-to-nature urban practices that can lead to a sustainable development without compromise on the existing conditions. This study investigates natural processes used by permaculture practitioners, and also introduces the basic idea of permaculture: a new field which integrates landscape and society in providing their food, shelter, and energy in a sustainable way. The paper explores the ecological design principles, which are delineated through a range of indicators such as sub urban/rural context, gardening and cost-effective systems. The conclusion tries to recognize ways in which individuals can start to carry out improvements in their way of life to move towards a sustainable framework by incorporating permaculture philosophy in their daily life.
- Mollison B.C. (1994)., Introduction to Permaculture., Tagari Publications.
- Holmgren David (2002)., Permaculture: Principles & Pathways Beyond Sustainability., Holmgren Design Services.
- Wasser K. (1994)., About Permaculture: Definitions., The Pc. Net Team, viewed 18 July 2014
- Hemenway Toby (2009)., Gaia´s Garden: A Guide to Home-Scale Permaculture., Second Edition. Chelsea Green Publishing Company.
- Whitefield P. (1993)., Permaculture in a nutshell., Clanfield: Permanent.
- Perkins Richard (2012)., Why Permaculture Needs Accurate Data and Measurement to Persuade the Mainstream., Permaculture - Inspiration for Sustainable Living. May 2nd, 2012.
- Pimentel D., Williamson S., Alexander C.E., Gonzalez-Pagan O., Kontak C. and Mulkey S.E. (2008)., Reducing energy inputs in the US food system., Human Ecology, 36(4), 459-471.
- Senge Peter (2006)., The Fifth Discipline., Doubleday, NY, 12.
- Shepard Mark (2013)., Restoration Agriculture: Redesigning Agriculture in Nature´s Image., Acres U.S.A.
- Weiseman W., Halsey D. and Ruddock B. (2014)., Integrated Forest Gardening: The Complete Guide to Polycultures and Plant Guilds in Permaculture Systems., Chelsea Green Publishing.
- Morrow R. (2010)., Earth User´s guide to permaculture., 2nd edn. East Mean: Permanent Publications.
- Naess A. (1973)., The shallow and the deep, long‐range ecology movement. A summary., Inquiry, 16(1-4), 95-100.
- Odum H.T. (1971)., Environment, Power, and Society., 1st edn. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc.