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Kinetics of drying of two edible fungi from Congo: Termitomyces sp. and Oyster mushroom

Author Affiliations

  • 1Département de Génie de Procédés Industriels, Ecole Nationale Supérieure Polytechnique, Université Marien Ngouabi, Congo
  • 2Département de Génie de Procédés Industriels, Ecole Nationale Supérieure Polytechnique, Université Marien Ngouabi, Congo
  • 3Département de Mécanique, Energétique et Ingénierie, Ecole Nationale Supérieure Polytechnique, Université Marien Ngouabi, Congo
  • 4Département de Technologie Agroalimentaires, Ecole Nationale Supérieure Polytechnique, Université Marien Ngouabi, Congo
  • 5Département de Génie de Procédés Industriels, Ecole Nationale Supérieure Polytechnique, Université Marien Ngouabi, Congo
  • 6Institut de Recherche Agronomique (IRA)-Département de Phytosanitaire, Université Marien Ngouabi, Congo
  • 7Département de Génie de Procédés Industriels, Ecole Nationale Supérieure Polytechnique, Université Marien Ngouabi, Congo

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 8, Issue (1), Pages 1-8, January,2 (2019)

Abstract

On the one hand, an evaluation of three types of drying (oven, microwave oven and solar drying) was used to specify the nature and importance of the unit operation on the characteristic parameters of the various food products. The impact of this process on dimensions, pH and water content were also evaluated. The drying temperature influences these parameters. The dimensions of the mushrooms are reduced after drying, whatever the source of energy. The pH values of fresh and dried mushrooms for Termitomyces sp. are 4.83 ± 0.2 and 4.75 ± 1.2; 4.73 ± 0.9; 4.80 ± 0.7 in the oven; 5.7 ± 0.8 at the solar dryer and 5.26 ± 0.7; 5.3 ± 0.4 in the microwave oven. They range from 5 ± 0.4 to 5.2 ± 0.6; 5.1 ± 0.4; 5.4 ± 0.1 in the oven, 5.6 ± 0.9 in the solar dryer and 5.1 ± 0.7; 5.4 ± 0.5 microwaves, for Oyster mushroom. The pH is globally acidic, indicating a good conservation. The conservation of mushrooms is optimal and compatible with human physiology. The rehydration capacity gives small gaps, however that of Oyster mushroom is high, because of their large dimensions compared to Termitomyces sp. On the other hand, drying characteristics were studied on the water content, in an electric oven at the set temperatures of 50, 60 and 70°C; in a domestic microwave oven with powers of 280 w and 420 w and in a solar dryer. The results indicate that all the experimental curves show an identical appearance: this one is decreasing. The drying time decreases as the temperature and air speed increase. The drying time is 570 and 840 minutes; 430 and 760 minutes; 390 and 590 minutes respectively for Termitomyces sp. and Oyster mushroom, in the case of fungi treated in an oven at temperatures of 50, 60 and 70°C. The drying time varies depending on the temperature. The water content ranges from 83.5 ± 0.4% to 5.06 ± 0.2%; 86, 9 ± 1.4% at 5, 13 ± 0.4%, respectively for Termitomyces sp. And Oyster mushroomat 70°C. The final water content is about 5%.

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