Preparation of Chitosan Membrane derived from Crustaceans residues Forproton Exchange Membrane Application
- 1Departmento de Química, Facultad de Biología, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Ecuador and Department of Chemistry, Kent State University at Stark, North Canton, OH 44720, USA
Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 5, Issue (11), Pages 1-7, November,2 (2016)
Proton exchange membrane (PEM) is used in fuel cells, as an alternative to synthetic fuel cell membranes, currently widely used, a natural biopolymer chitosan is one of the promising membrane materials, it is the N-deacetylated derivative of chitin, and chitin has been found in a wide range of natural sources. Shrimp and crab crustacean exoskeletons are regarded as organic solid wastes by fishing industry and food processing in Ecuador. Thus, the raw material is cheap, biodegradable, and renewable source of chitin and chitosan. The general objective of this study was to obtain a cost effective and eco-friendly chitosan membrane derived from shrimp and crab residues and to estimate various, physicochemical parameters. The membrane chitosan preparation from shrimp and crab consisted of cleaned, grained to a finely powder. Chitin was extracted from the powder sample by deproteinization and demineralization process. Chitosan membrane was obtained from chitin by thermo alkaline deacetylation process and cross-linked in sulfuric acid. Ash content values of shrimp chitosan are lower than crab chitosan suggesting that crab chitosan contain large amounts of mineral material, such as calcium carbonate. The shrimp chitosan has a higher degree of acetylation and lower values of viscosities than crab chitosan. TGA and DTG measurements exhibit shrimp chitosan weight loss in three stages, whereas crab chitosan shows six stages of weight loss. This is associated to the evaporation of water present in the sample and degradation of compounds within crab chitosan that occurs over a large temperature interval with the final stage beginning at about 400oC. FT-IR spectroscopy results showed the collapse of shrimp and crab chitin to chitosan, strong decrease in intensity decarbonization and were compared to data from thermo gravimetric analysis conducted in oxygen atmosphere. XRD pattern of shrimp and crab chitosans exhibited two crystalline peaks at 2&
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