6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2020) will be Postponed to 8th and 9th May 2021 Due to COVID-19. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Mathematical Techniques to Study the Spatial Pattern of Meloidogynejavanica in relation to soil fungi and soil characteristics in a tomato-grown field

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Mathematical Sciences, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi-75270, PAKISTAN
  • 2 Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, PAKISTAN
  • 3 Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi-75270, PAKISTAN

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 4, Issue (12), Pages 60-67, December,2 (2015)

Abstract

Mathematical techniques are widely applied in landscape ecology to quantify the spatial patterns exhibited within species and its associated root fungi. Several analyses have been developed and modified to improve the ability to detect and characterize the patterns by the growth of species and population in various scale. Analysis of spatial pattern for disease and pathogen are of interest for the understanding and management plan to control the increase or spread within plant populations due to the numerous shared channels. Mathematical approaches encounter and give quantitative information of infections caused by many soil borne plant pathogens which are generally found in clusters of patches. Reliable approach for the use of spatial data can be established either by the research objective or by the measurement types and sampling designs procedures. We applied several mathematical tools to quantify the quantitative nature of Meloidogyne javanica and its associated soil fungi and soil characteristics in the development of nematode populations in the tomato grown field.

References

  1. Sasser J.N. and Freckman D.W., A world prospective on nematology: the role of the society, pp. 7Ė14 in Vistas on Nematology, edited by Veech J.A. and Dickson D.W., Society of Nematologists, Hyattsville, MD ( 1987)
  2. Agrios G.N., Plant Pathology. 2nd Edition. Orlando Academic Press (1997)
  3. Mankau R., Biocontrol: fungi as nematode control agents, J. Nematol., 12, 244-252 (1980)
  4. Neher D.A. and Olson R.K., Nematode communities in soils of four farm cropping management systems, Pedobiologia,43, 430-438 (1999)
  5. Korthals G.W., Alexiev A.D., Lexmond T.M.,Kammenga J.E. and Bongers T., Long-term effects of copper and pH on the nematode community in an agroecosystem, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 15, 979-985 (1996)
  6. Neher D.A. and Campbell C.L., Nematode communities and microbial biomass in soils with annual and perennial crops, Applied Soil Ecology, 1, 17-28 (1994)
  7. Beare M.H., Fungal and bacterial pathways of organic matter decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in arable soil. Pages 37-70 in L. Brussaard and R. Ferrera-Cerrato, editors. Soil ecology in sustainable agricultural systems, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, USA (1997)
  8. Ettema C.H. and Bongers T., Characterization of nematode colonization and succession in disturbed soil using the Maturity Index, Biology and Fertility of Soils,16, 79-85 (1993)
  9. Goodell P.B. and Ferris H., Plant parasitic nematode distributions in an alfalfa field, Journal of Nematology, 12, 136-141 (1980)
  10. Singh J. and Gaur H.S., Seasonal variation in the horizontal spatial pattern of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and application of the negative binomial and Taylorís power law models in developing sampling schemes, Indian Journal of Nematology, 26, 226-236 (1996)
  11. Taylor L.R. Assessing and Interpreting the Spatial Distributions of Insect Populations, Annual Review of Entomology, 29, 321-357 (1984)
  12. Boag K.R. and Topham P.B., Aggregation of plant parasitic nematodes and Taylorís power law, Nematologica, 30, 348-357 (1984)
  13. Duncan L.W., Ferguson J.J., Dunn R.A. and Noling J.W., Application of Taylorís power law to sample statistics to Tylenchulus semipenetrains in Florida citrus, Journal of Nematology, 21, 707-711 (1989)
  14. Ferris H., Mullens T.A. and Foord K.E., Stability and characteristics of spatial description parameters for nematode populations, Journal of Nematology, 18, 183-189 (1990)
  15. Pierce F.J. and Nowak P., Aspects of precision agriculture, Advances in Agronomy, 67, 1-85 (1999)
  16. Campbell C.L. and Madden L.V., Introduction to plant disease epidemiology, John Willey and Sons, New Yourk,348 (1990)
  17. Shaukat S.S. and Khan A., Spatial pattern analysis of three nematode populations associated with chilli, Fundamentals of Applied Nematology, 16, 473-478 (1993)
  18. Ter Braak C.J.F., Canonical correspondence analysis: a new eigenvector technique for multivariate direct gradient analysis, Ecology,67, 1167-1179 (1986)
  19. Fiscus D.A., Development and evaluation of an indicator of soil health based on nematode communities. M.S. Thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA (1997)
  20. Myers J.H., Selecting a measure of dispersion, Environmental Entomology,7, 615-621 (1978)
  21. Lloyd M. Mean crowding, Journal of animal Ecology,36, 1-30 (1967)
  22. Morisita M., Application of I index to sampling techniques, Researches in population Ecology Kyusbu University, 12, 149-164 (1964)
  23. Greig-Smith P., Quantitative Plant Ecology, 3rd Edition, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA (1983)
  24. Moran P.A.P. Notes on continuous stochastic phenomena, Biometrika,37, 17-37 (1950)
  25. Sokal R.R. and Oden L., Spatial autocorrelation in biology I. methodology, Biological Journal of Linnean Society, 10, 199-228 (1978)
  26. ter Braak C.J.F. and Prentice I.C., A theory of gradient analysis, Advances in Ecological Research18, 271-317 (1988)
  27. Ter Braak C.J.F. and ämilauer P., Canoco Reference Manual and CanoDraw for Windows User's Guide: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (version 4.5), Microcomputer Power, Ithaca, USA (2002)
  28. De Goede R.G.M., Graphical presentation and interpretation of nematode community structure: C-P triangles. Ph.D. Dissertation. Department of Nematology, Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands (1993)
  29. Neher D.A., Peck S.L., Rawlings J.O. and Campbell C.L., Measures of nematode community structure and sources of variability among and within agricultural fields, Plant and Soil, 170, 167-181 (1995)