6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2020) will be Postponed to 8th and 9th May 2021 Due to COVID-19. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Operating Temperature Optimization of CCD 236 X-Ray Fluorescence Detector

Author Affiliations

  • 1University of Calicut, INDIA
  • 2 ISRO, Bangalore, INDIA

Res. J. Recent Sci., Volume 3, Issue (ISC-2013), Pages 415-419, (2014)


Scientific Charge Coupled Device, CCD 236, designed to be used in Chandrayan II mission as high sensitive large area X-ray Fluorescence detector. CCD refers to an array of closely spaced MOS capacitors formed on a continuous oxide layer grown on a semi conductor substrate. The operation of a CCD is based on, the photo generation of charges within the pixels, charge collection, charge transfer and integration, when photons incident on its surface. Charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and bulk dark current are important parameters that determine the performance of a CCD. Both of them are expected to be affected by temperature variation. Hence an optimum temperature for the desired performance is to be determined. The resolution of CCD for 5.9 KeV Mn K and 6.4 KeV Mn Kβ lines were studied over a temperature range of -15 to -30 degree Celsius. The clock frequency was varied over a frequency range of 90-130 KHz at clock bias of 7 .0 volts. It is found that, the resolution of the device increases considerably as the temperature is decreased in the above temperature range. Under the given condition the optimum temperature range is found to be -20 to -30 at desired clock frequency of 100 KHz.


  1. V. Radhakrishna et al, The Chandrayaan-2 Large Area Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (Class), Conference proceedings, 42nd Lunar and planetary Science conference (2011),Woodlands, Texas; No. 1708.pdf
  2. W.S. Boyle and G.E. Smith, Charge Coupled Semiconductor Devices, Bell Sys. Tech. J.,49(4), 587593 (1970)
  3. Hopkinson G.R., Proton-induced CCD charge transfer degradation at low-operating temperatures, Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on , 48(6) (2001)
  4. James R. Janesick Scientific 0 Charge-Coupled Devices. SPIE Press Monograph, PM83, (34 and 351) (2001), 415-419 (2014)
  5. E. Banghart et al., A model for charge transfer in buried channel charge coupled device at low temperature, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices,38(5), (1991)
  6. J Carnes., W. Kosonokcy and E Ramberg, Free charge transfer in charge coupled devices, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices,ED-19(6), 798-808 (1972)
  7. James R. Janesick, Scientific Charge Coupled Devices, ISBN 0-8194-3698-4, SPIE press, 610-630 (2001)