5th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Multivariate analysis and ecological risk assessment of potentially toxic metals in soils contaminated by automobile battery wastes at Kosofe area of Lagos, Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo, Owerri, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos, Akoka-Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
  • 3Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos, Akoka-Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 9, Issue (1), Pages 11-18, January,18 (2019)

Abstract

This research work studied the multivariate analysis of potentially toxic metals in soils from the vicinity of automobile battery-workshops in Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos, Nigeria. Representative soil samples were collected from ten selected locations where charging, refilling, repair and disposal of automobile batteries had been taking place. The samples were digested with aqua regia and analyzed for potentially toxic metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn and Cu) using the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimized conditions. The physicochemical properties of the soils (pH, %organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and particle size distribution) were determined using standard analytical methods. The original results obtained were then subjected to multivariate analysis using the principal component analysis to identify the correlation between the physicochemical parameters and the pseudo-total concentration of the potentially toxic metals. The ecological risk assessment of the potentially toxic metals was done using Hakanson's proposal. The results of the analysis showed that the soils in the study area were severely contaminated with Pb, Cd and Cu. The results of the principal component analysis showed that PC1 explained 33.06% of the total variance which exhibited a high positive loading on Pb, Zn, Cr and Cu while PC2 explained 26.69% of the total variance which exhibited a high positive loading on Cd, Ni, Cr and Cu. The results of the ecological risk assessment revealed that the soils around the study area were severely contaminated with Pb, Cd and Cu and these could have both natural and anthropogenic sources.

References

  1. Abdulrahman F.W. and Itodo A.U. (2006)., Canned Fish Poisoning: High Level of Some Toxic Metals., Medical and Pharm. Sciences, 2(1), 10-14.
  2. Hardy D.H., Myers J. and Stokes C. (2008)., Heavy Metals in North Carolina Soils; Occurrence and Significance., N.C. Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Agronomic Division. 1-2. available at www.ncagr.gov/agronomi/
  3. Nwachukwu M.A., Feng H. and Alinnor J. (2011)., Trace Metal Dispersion in Soil from Auto-mechanic Village to Urban Residential Areas in Owerri, Nigeria., Procedia Environmental Sciences, 4, 310-322.
  4. Kosolapov D.B., Kuschk P., Vainshtein M.B., Vatsourina A.V., Wiebner A., Kasterner M. and Miller R.A. (2004)., Microbial Processes of Heavy Metal Removal from Carbon Deficient Effluents in Constructed Wetlands., Engineering Life Science, 4(5), 403-411.
  5. Adelekan B.A. and Abegunde K.D. (2011)., Heavy metals contamination of soil and groundwater at automobile mechanic villages in Ibadan, Nigeria., International journal of physical sciences, 6(5), 1045-1058.
  6. Walkley A. and Black I.A. (1934)., An Examination of the Degtjareff Method for Determining Soil Organic Matter and a Proposed Modification of the Chromic Acid Titration Method., Soil Sciences, 37, 29-38.
  7. Gillman G.P. and Sumpter E.A. (1986)., Modification to the compulsive exchange method for measuring exchange characteristics of soils., Aust. J. Soil Res., 24, 61-66.
  8. American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM D422), (2007)., Standard Test Method for Particle-size Analysis of Soils.,
  9. Hakanson L.L. (1980)., An Ecological Risk Index for Aquatic Pollution Control, a Sedimentological Approach., Water Research, 14(8), 975-1001. DOI:10.1016/0043-1354(80)90143-8
  10. Qishlaqi A. and Moore F. (2007)., Statistical Analysis of Accumulation and Sources of Heavy Metals Occurrence in Agricultural Soils of Khoshk River Banks, Shiraz, Iran., American-Eurasian J. Agric. and Environ. Sci., 2(5), 565-573.
  11. Dinev N., Banov M. and Nikova I. (2008)., Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Contaminated Soils., Gen. Appl. Plant Physiology, Special Issue 34(3-4), 389-396.
  12. Bodar C.W., Pronk M.E. and Sijm D.T. (2006)., The European Union Risk Assessment on Zinc and Zinc Compounds: The process and the facts., Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 1(4), 301-319.
  13. Curtis L.R. and Smith B.W. (2002)., Heavy Metal in Fertilizers: Considerations in Setting Regulations in Oregun., Oregun Department of Agriculture, Salem, Oregun, 10.
  14. Kaiser H.F. (1960)., The Application of Electronic Computers to Factor Analysis., Edu. Psychol. Meas., 20, 141-151.
  15. L'Herroux L., Le Roux S., Appriou P. and Martinez J. (1997)., Behaviour of Metals following Intensive Pig Slurry Applications to a Natural Field Treatment Process in Brittany France., Environ. Pollution, 97, 119-130.
  16. Chang A.C. and Page A.L. (2000)., Trace Elements Slowly Accumulating, Depleting in Soils., Carlif. Agr., 54(2), 49-55.
  17. Nicholson F.A., Smith S.R., Alloway B.J., Smith C.C. and Chambers B.J. (2003)., An Inventory of Heavy Metal Input to Agricultural Soil in England and Wales., Sci Total Environ, 311(1-3), 205-219.
  18. Parafilippaki A., Gasparatos D., Haidouti C. and Stavroulakis G. (2007)., Total and Bioavailable Forms of Cu. Zn, Pb and Cr in Agricultural Soils: A Study from the Hydrological Basin of Keritis, Chania, Greece., Global NEST Journal, 9(3), 201-206.
  19. Buchman M. (2008)., NOAA Screening Quick Reference Tables, NOAA OR&R Report 08-1 Seattle WA., Office of Response and Restoration Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 34.
  20. Holmgren G.G.S., Meyer M.W., Chaney R.L. and Daniels R.B. (1985)., Cadmium Levels in Soils and Crops in the United States.,