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Formulation and physico-chemical properties of dietary fiber enhanced low glycemic multi-grain Cracker for adults using locally available cereals and legumes

Author Affiliations

  • 1Food Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute (ITI), No. 503A, Halbarawa Gardens, Thalahena, Malabe, Sri Lanka
  • 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Livestock, Fisheries and Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka
  • 3Food Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute (ITI), No. 503A, Halbarawa Gardens, Thalahena, Malabe, Sri Lanka
  • 4Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Livestock, Fisheries and Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 8, Issue (8), Pages 6-15, August,18 (2018)

Abstract

Crackers are popular among all types of age group including younger and older. They are considered as healthy snacks due to their low levels of salt, sugar and moderate content of fat but they are in low content of Dietary Fiber (DF). Since there is an inverse relationship between intake of DF and risk for developing Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in adults, the present study was conducted with an objective of formulating a cracker with enhanced DF content by incorporating selected locally available whole grain cereals and legumes. Flour composition of a normal cracker formulation (i.e. 100% (W/W) wheat flour) was substituted at 50%, 40% and 30% levels with a multi-grain flour containing Finger Millet (FM), Brown Rice (BR) and legumes; either Green Gram (GG), Chick Pea (CP) or Soya Bean (SB) in different ratios. Since 50% substitution (BR: FM: legume=1.5:1.5:2) was not be able to produce the required rheological properties in the dough, studies were continued with 40% and 30% substitutions. In 40% substitution of wheat flour with the multi-grain flour was only feasible with CP. The formulation of cracker with 40% substitution was repeated at 2:1:1, 1:2:1 and 1:1:2 ratios of BR: FM: CP. The 30% substitution was possible to formulate crackers with all types of selected legumes when the ratios of multi-grain flour had 1:1:1(BR: FM: legume). Proximate composition and the DF content of both raw materials and final products, Glycemic Index (GI; in-vitro) and sensory attributes of formulated crackers were carried out. Of the raw materials, SB had the highest DF content (24.88%) while CP, GG, FM and BR had a DF content of 11.27%, 10.58%, 9.57% and 2.99%, respectively. Of the formulated crackers, the highest DF content of 3.91% was obtained for the 40% substitution where the composition of mixed-grain flour was 1:1:2 in BR: FM: CP (F1) and it was significantly higher than DF of wheat cracker (p ≤ 0.05). From the formulated crackers, the lowest predicted Glycemic Index of 57.28% was obtained for F1 and it was lower than that obtained for wheat cracker (70.23%). The mean ranks for appearance, color, flavor, crispiness, creaminess, mouth feel and overall acceptability in sensory evaluation obtained by F1 were not significantly different from ranks obtained by the wheat cracker (p > 0.05). In cracker formulation, 40% of mixed-grain flour was the optimum level of substitution and the cracker thus formulated with 1:1:2 ratio in BR: FM: CP was the best formulation.

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