Formulation and physico-chemical properties of dietary fiber enhanced low glycemic multi-grain noodles for adults using locally available cereals and legumes
- 1Food Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute (ITI), No. 503A, Halbarawa Gardens, Thalahena, Malabe, Sri Lanka
- 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Livestock, Fisheries and Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka
- 3Food Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute (ITI), No. 503A, Halbarawa Gardens, Thalahena, Malabe, Sri Lanka
- 4Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Livestock, Fisheries and Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka
Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 8, Issue (4), Pages 15-23, April,18 (2018)
Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are the most prominent health issues in worldwide. A high intake of carbohydrate and fat eventually results in developing NCDs and generous intake of dietary fiber (DF) has a protective effect against NCDs. Whole grain cereals and legumes are rich sources of DF. The objective of present study is to develop high fibre multi-grain noodles with low Glycaemic Index (GI) as an alternative to less healthy noodles available in the market. Whole grain cereals; Brown Rice (BR), Wheat Flour (WF) and whole grain legumes; Chick Pea (CP), Green Gram (GG), Black Gram (BG) were used for formulations. Ash, fat, protein and DF contents of raw materials were found to vary in ranges of 1.34-3.96%, 0.85-6.85%, 10.43-28.17%, and 2.99-12.86% respectively. The possibility of preparation of noodles from different composite flour mixtures were tested evaluating rheological properties and the standard for Total Solid (TS) in gruel values. Results indicated that maximum incorporation of legumes flour is 30%. Three products (F4, F5, F6) which had % proportions of BR: WF, 40:30, 30:40 and 20:50 with 30% legumes flour of CP: GG: BG at ratio of 1:1:1 were selected by considering low levels of TS in gruel values where as F6 having the lowest. DF and Resistant Starch (RS) contents of selected three products ranged from 7.87-9.31% and 0.78-1.13% on dry weight basis respectively. F6 (WF: 50%, BR: 20%, legumes: 30%) had the most sensory preferable product with high DF and low predicted GI.
- Lattimer J.M. and Haub M.D. (2010)., A Review: Effects of Dietary Fiber and Its Components on Metabolic Health., Nutrients, 2(12), 1266-1289.
- Jayawardena R., Thennakoon S., Byrnel N., Soares M., Katulanda P. and Hills A. (2014)., Energy and nutrient intakes among Sri Lankan adults., International Archives of Medicine, 7, 34.
- Katulanda P., Ranasinghe P., Jayawardena R., Sheriff R. and Matthews D. (2012)., Metabolic syndrome among Sri Lankan adults: prevalence patterns and correlates., Diabetol Metab Syndr., 4, 24.
- Anderson J.W. and Conley S.B. (2007)., Whole grains and diabetes., In: Whole Grains and Health. (edited by L. Marquart, D.R. Jacobs, G.H. McIntosh, K. Poutanen and M. Reicks), Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Professional, 29-45.
- Uberoi S.K., Vadhera S. and Soni G.L. (1992)., Role of dietary fibre from pulses and cereals as hypocholestremic and hypolipidemic agent., J Food Sci. Technol, 29(2), 281-283.
- World Health Organization (2003)., Diet, Nutrition and Prevention of Chronic Disease: Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation World Health Organization Technical Report Series., World Health Organization, 916(1-4), 1-149.
- American Association of Cereal Chemists (2001)., AACC Report on the Definition of Dietary Fiber., Cereal Food World, 46(3), 112-126.
- Dhingra D., Michael M., Rajput H. and Patil R.T. (2012)., Dietary fibre in foods: A Review., Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49(3), 255-266.
- National Research Council (U.S.) (1989)., Diet and Health: Implications for reducing chronic disease risk., National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
- Sri Lanka Standards 420: (1989)., UDC: 664.69. Specification for pasta products., Sri Lanka Standards Institute. 53, Dharmapala Mawatha, Colombo 03.
- Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (2012). 18th ed. USA: Gaithersburg, Md., undefined, undefined
- Sompong R., Siebenhandl-Ehn S., Linsberger-Martin G. and Berghofer E. (2011)., Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of red and black rice varieties from Thailand, China and Sri Lanka., Food Chemistry, 124(1), 132-140.
- Asp N.G., Johansson C.G., Hallmer H. and Silijestrom M. (1983)., Rapid enzymatic assay of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber., J. Agric. Food Chem, 31, 476-482.
- Thompson L.U., Button C.L. and Jenkins D.J.A. (1987)., Phytic acid and calcium affect the in vitro rate of navy beab starch digestion and blood glucose response in humans., Am J Clin Nutr., 46, 467-473.
- Miller G.L. (1959)., Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar., Analytical chemistry, 31(3), 426-428.
- Saqib A.A.N. and Whitney P.J. (2011)., Differential behaviour of the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) Reagent towards mono and di-saccharide sugars., Biomas and bioenergy, 35(11), 4748-4750.
- Goni L., Alonso A.G. and Calixto F.S. (1997)., A starch hydrolysis procedure to estimate glycemic index., Nutrition Research, 17(3), 427-437.
- Germaine K.A., Saman S., Fryirs C.G., Griffiths P.J., Johnson S.K. and Quail K. (2008)., Comparison of in vitro starch digestibility methods for predicting the glycaemic index of grain foods., Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 88(4), 652-658.
- Megazyme (2016)., Setting New Standards in Test Technology., https://www.megazyme.com. [accessed on 2016/09/07]
- Kadam S.S., Deshpande S. and Jambhale N. (1989)., Handbook of world food legumes: Nutritional Chemistry, Processsing Technology, and Utilization., Boca Raton: CRC press, 23-50.
- Mubarak A.E. (2005)., Nutritional composition and anti-nutritional factors of mung bean seeds (Phaseolus aureus) as affected by some home traditional processes., Food Chemistry, 89(4), 489-495.
- Blessing I.A. and Gregory I.O. (2010)., Effect of processing on the proximate composition of the dehulled and undehulled mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] flours., Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9(10), 1006-1016.
- Kathleen M., Zelman MPH RD LD and Brunilda Nazario MD (2010)., Dietary Fiber: Insoluble vs. Soluble., [online], available from: https://www.webmd.com/ diet/insoluble-soluble-fiber [accessed on 2016/03/07]
- Vani V. and Manimegalai G. (2004)., Processing of high protein pulse based noodles., Indian food packer, 38(4), 63-67.
- Seib P.A., Deyoe C.W. and Ward A.B. (1985)., Effects of processing variables on quality characteristics of dry noodles., Cereal Chemistry, 62, 431-437.
- Sri Lanka Standards 858: (1989)., UDC: 664.694. Specification for Rice Noodles., Sri Lanka Standards Institute. 53, Dharmapala Mawatha, Colombo 03.
- Hasjim J., Lee S.O., Hendrich S., Setiawan S., Ai Y. and Jane J. (2010)., Characterization of a Novel Resistant-Starch and Its Effects on Postprandial Plasma-Glucose and Insulin Responses., Cereal Chemistry, 87(4), 257-262.
- Englyst H.N., Kingman S.M. and Cummings J.H. (1992)., Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions., European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 46, S33-S50.
- Grzybowski R.A. and Donnelly B.J. (1979)., Cooking properties of spaghetti. Factors affecting cooking quality., J. Agric. Food Chem, 27(2), 380-384.
- Dexter J.E., Kilborn R.H., Morgan B.C. and Matsuo R.R. (1983)., Grain research laboratory compression tester: instrumental measurement of cooked spaghetti stickiness [Durum wheat]., Cereal Chemistry, 60, 139-143.
- Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka; Extraordinary (2005), Food (Labeling and advertising) Regulations, Food Act, No 26 of 1980., undefined, undefined
- Misner S., Whitmer E. and Florian T.A. (2006)., Dietary Fibre., Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721.