6th International Virtual Congress (IVC-2019) And Workshop.  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Influence of abattoir wastes on soil microbial and physicochemical properties

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • 2Microbiology Department, University of Uyo, Uyo Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • 3Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 8, Issue (12), Pages 1-14, December,18 (2018)

Abstract

Influence of abattoir wastes on physicochemical and microbiological properties of soil samples obtained from Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria were investigated using standard analytical and microbiological methods. Studied abattoirs and the control soils were in the sandy-clay-loamy soil category with varied quantities of sand, silt and clay. Bulk density, pH, electrical conductivities, salinity, moisture content, total organic and carbon content, cation exchange capacities, total petroleum hydrocarbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents of studied abattoir soils were higher than in control .Essential elements (K, Na, Ca, and Mg) and trace metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni) levels were also higher in abattoir soils than in control though were within permissible limit in soil except for Fe. Metal pollution index (MPI), enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), degree of contamination (Cdeg) and pollution load index (PLI) of trace metals have also been calculated using existing pollution models. Microbial studies revealed total heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 6.41±0.43 to 7.91±0.58 log10CFU/g while fungal count ranged from 4.94±0.26 to 5.79±0.34 log10CFU/g. Among the four (4) locations, IK2 had the highest heterotrophic bacterial densities of 7.91±0.58 log10CFU/g while IK1 had the highest fungal count of 5.79±0.34 log10 CFU/g. A total of six (6) bacteria (Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Escherichia and Enterobacter) and two (2) fungi (Aspergillus and Penicillium) species were isolated. The study revealed a significant (p=0.05) increase in the number and varieties of microorganisms most of which may be pathogenic but are more often than not indicators of recent faecal pollution in the soil impacted with the abattoir wastes.

References

  1. Nwuche C.O. and Ugoji E.O. (2010)., Effect of Co-existing Plant Species on Soil Microbial Activity under Heavy Metal Stress., International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 7(4), 697-704.
  2. Daniel L.A. and Braide S.A. (2004)., The Effect of Oil Spillage on a Cultivated Wet-land of the Niger Delta., Journal of Environmental Science, 2, 153-158.
  3. Yahaya M.I., Mohammad S. and Abdullahi B.K. (2009)., Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals Concentration in Abattoir Dumping Site Soil in Nigeria., J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage., 13(4), 9-13.
  4. Hornby A.S. (2006)., Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of current English., 7th edition, 1381.
  5. Ubwa S.T., Atoo G.H., Offem J.O., Abah J. and Asemave K. (2013)., Effect of Activities at the Gboko Abattoir on Some Physical Properties and Heavy Metals Levels of Surrounding Soil., International Journal of Chemistry, 5(1), 49-57.
  6. Red Meat Abbattoir Association (2010)., Waste Management-Red Meat Abattoir. Retrieved from SON (2003). Standard Organization of Nigeria Safe Drinking Water Regulation., http://www.docstoc.com/docs/ 103302144/Waste-Management-%EE%9F% A6-Red-Meat-Abattoirs.
  7. Steffen L.C., Roberts H.Y. and Kirsten (1989)., Water and waste-water management in the red meat industry., 36, WRC Report No. 145 TT41/89. WRC, Pretoria.
  8. Kruslin E., Hodel C.M. and Schurgast H. (1999)., Progress in Diagnosis of Chronic Toxic Metal Poisoning by Hair Analysis., Toxicol. Lett., 88, 84-90.
  9. Jukna C., Jukna V. and Siugzdaite J. (2006)., Determination of heavy metals in viscera and muscles of cattle., Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 9(1), 35-41.
  10. Ezeoha S.L. and Ugwuishiwu B.O. (2011)., Status of Abattoir Wastes Research in Nigeria., Nigerian Journal of Technology, 30(2), 143-148.
  11. Nwachukwu M.I., Akinde S.B., Udujih O.S. and Nwachukwu I.O. (2011)., Effect of Abattoir Wastes on the Population of Proteolytic and Lipolytic Bacteria in a Recipient Water Body (Otamiri River)., Global Research Journal of Science, 1, 40-42.
  12. Magaji J.Y. and Chup C.D. (2012)., The Effects of Abattoir Waste on Water Quality in Gwagwalada-Abuja, Nigeria., Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 5(4), 542-549.
  13. Raymond C.L. (1977)., Pollution Control for Agriculture., Academic Press Inc. New York, 45-58.
  14. Saidu M. and Musa J.J. (2012)., Impact of Abattoir Effluent on River Landzu, Bida, Nigeria., Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences, 2(1), 132-136.
  15. Chen T., Liu X., Li X., Zhao K., Zhang J., Xu J., Shi J. and Dahlgren R.A. (2009)., Heavy Metal Sources Identification and Sampling Uncertainty Analysis in a Field-scale Vegetable Soil of Hang Zhou, China., Environmental Pollution, 157(3), 1003-1010.
  16. Ibitoye A.A. (2006)., Laboratory Manual on Basic Soil Analysis., Foladave Nigeria Limited, Ibadan, 16-36.
  17. Olofunmi O.E. and Alli A.A. (2016)., To Determined Variability of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of a Typical Land Disposal Catfish Effluent in South Western Nigeria., International Journal of Agricultural Science, 6(3), 963-968.
  18. Van-Reeuwijk L.P. (1993)., Procedures for soil analysis., Wageningen: Technical Paper 9, ISRIC, 16-18.
  19. Edori O.S. and Iyama W.A. (2017)., Assessment of Physicochemical Parameters of Soils from Selected Abattoirs in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria., Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 4(2), 194-201.
  20. Ebong G.A., Offiong O.E. and Ekpo B.O. (2014)., Seasonal variations in trace metal levels, speciation and physicochemical determinants of metal availability in dumpsite soils within Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria., Chemistry and Ecology, 30(5), 403-417.
  21. Al-Khashman O.A. and Shawabkeh R.A. (2006)., Metals distribution in soils around the cement factory in southern Jordan., Environmental pollution, 140(3), 387-394.
  22. Fagbote E.O. and Olanipekun E.O. (2010)., Speciation of heavy metals in sediment of Agbabu Bitumen deposit area, Nigeria., Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 14(4), 47-51.
  23. Khan R.S., Kumar N.J. and Patel G.H. (2013)., Physicochemical Properties, Heavy Metals Content and Fungal Characterization of an Old Gasoline Contaminated Soil Site in Anand, Gujarat, India., Environ Exp Biol, 11, 137-143.
  24. Okoye C.O.B. and Agbo K.E. (2011)., Dispersion Pattern of Trace Metals in Soils Surrounding Solid Waste Dump in Nsukka., J. Chem Soc Nigeria, 36(2), 112-119.
  25. Allen S.E., Grimshaw H.M., Parkinson J.A. and Quarmby C. (1974)., Chemical analysis of ecological materials., Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, London, UK, 65-70.
  26. Rabah A.B., Oyeleke S.B., Manga S.B., Hassan L.G. and Ijah U.J. (2010)., Microbiological and Physico-Chemical Assessment of Soil Contaminated with Abattoir Effluents in Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria., Science World Journal, 5(3), 1-4.
  27. Cappuccino J.G. and Sherman N. (2002)., Techniques for Isolation of Pure Culture., In: Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. 6th ed. Singapore : Pearson Education, Inc., 544.
  28. Cheesbrough M. (2006)., District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries Part 2., UK: Cambridge University Press, 45-70.
  29. Brenner D.J., Noel R.K. and Staley J.T. (1982)., Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology., 2nd ed., New York: Springer, 304.
  30. Aneja K.R. (2003)., Experiments in Microbiology., Plant Pathology and Biotechnology, 4th Ed., New Delhi: New Age International Limited Publishers, 282.
  31. Lacatusu R. (2000)., Appraising levels of soil contamination and pollution with heavy metals., European Soil Bureau, 4, 93-102.
  32. Hakanson L. (1980)., Ecological Risk Index for Aquatic Pollution Control, A Sedimentological Approach., Water Research, 14(8), 975-1001.
  33. Rubio B., Nombela M.A. and Vilas F. (2000)., Geochemistry of Major and Trace Elements in Sediments of the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain) an Assessment of Metal Pollution., Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40(11), 968- 980.
  34. Szefer P., Szefer K., Glasby G.P., Pempkowiak J. and Kaliszan R. (1996)., Heavy‐metal pollution in surficial sediments from the Southern Baltic sea off Poland., Journal of Environmental Science & Health Part A, 31(10), 2723-2754.
  35. Lu X., Wang L., Lei K., Huang J. and Zhai Y. (2009)., Contamination Assessment of Copper, Lead, Zinc, Manganese and Nickel in Street Dust of Baoji, NW China., Journal of Hazardous Materials, 161(2-3), 1058-1062.
  36. Ho H.H., Swennen R. and Van Damme A. (2010)., Distribution and contamination status of heavy metals in estuarine sediments near Cua Ong Harbor, Ha Long Bay, Vietnam., Geologica belgica, 13(1-2), 36-47.
  37. Tomlinson D.L., Wilson J.G., Harris C.R. and Jeffrey D. W. (1980)., Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index., Helgoländer meeresuntersuchungen, 33(1), 566-575.
  38. Ediene V.F., Iren O.B. and Idiong M.M. (2016)., Effect of Abattoir Effluents on the Physico-chemical Properties of Surrounding Soils in Calabar Metropolis., International Journal of Advance Research, 4(8), 37-41.
  39. Brady N.C. and Well R.R. (1999)., The Nature and Properties of Soil., Pearson Educational Publishers, Delhi, 213.
  40. Olayinka O.O., Akande O.O., Bamgbose K. and Adetunji M.T. (2017)., Physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels in soil samples obtained from selected anthropogenic sites in Abeokuta, Nigeria., Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 21(5), 883-891.
  41. Chibuzor O.J., Nwakonobi T.U. and Itodo I.N. (2017)., Influence of Physic-chemical Characteristic of Soils on Heavy Metal Contamination in Makurdi, Benue State., International Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 11, 84-92.
  42. Franzmeier D.P., Lemme G.D. and Miles R.J. (1995)., Organic Carbon in soils of North Central United States., Soil Science Society America Journal, 49, 702-708. Rich, K. and Von, I. 2010. Utah State University, USA, Extension and Agriculture Department: Guidelines for Soil Quality, 60.
  43. FAO. (1979)., Soil Survey investigation for irrigation soils., John Wiley and sons Inc., New York, 23-29.
  44. Arias M.E., Gonzalez-Perez J.A. and Ball A.S. (2005)., Soil Health: A New Challenge for Microbiologist and Chemists., Int Microbiol., 8, 13-21.
  45. Chukwu U.J. and Anuchi S.O. (2016)., Impact of Abattoir Wastes on the Physicochemical Properties of Soils within Port Harcourt Metropolis., The International Journal of Engineering and Science, 5(6), 17-21.
  46. Agbaire P.O. and Emoyan O.O. (2012)., Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) and associated soils in domestic dumpsite in Abraka, Delta state, Nigeria., International journal of plant, animal and environmental sciences, 2(3), 204-209.
  47. Odu C.T.I., Nwoboshi L.C. and Esuruoso O.F. (1985)., Environmental Studies (soil and vegetation) of the Nigerian Agip Oil Company Operation Areas., Proceedings of an international seminar on petroleum industry and the Nigerian environment, NNPC, Lagos Nigeria, 274-283.
  48. Thomson C.J., Marschner H. and Römheld V. (1993)., Effect of nitrogen fertilizer form on pH of the bulk soil and rhizosphere, and on the growth, phosphorus, and micronutrient uptake of bean., Journal of Plant Nutrition, 16(3), 493-506.
  49. Osaki M., Watanabe T. and Tadano T. (1997)., Beneficial effect of aluminum on growth of plants adapted to low pH soils., Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 43(3), 551-563.
  50. Osakwe S.A. (2016)., Contribution of Abattoir Activities in Delta State, Nigeria, to the Soil Properties of their Surrounding Environment., J Chem Biol Phys Sci., 6, 982- 991.
  51. Akan J.C., Abdulrahman F.I., Sodipo O.A. and Lange A.G. (2010)., Physicochemical Parameters in Soil and Vegetable Samples from Gongulon Agricultural Site, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria., Journal of American Science, 6(12), 75-87.
  52. Onweremadu E.U. (2008)., Physico-chemical characterization of a farmland affected by wastewater in relation to heavy metals., Journal of zhejiang university-science A, 9(3), 366-372.
  53. Chaudhari P.R., Ahire D.V. and Ahire V.D. (2012)., Correlation Between Physicochemical Properties and Available Nutrients in Sandy Loam Soils of Haridwar., Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences, 2 (3), 1493-1500.
  54. Nafarnda W.D., Ajayi I.E., Shawulu J.C., Kawe M.S., Omeiza G.K., Sani N.A. and Dantong D.D. (2012)., Bacteriological quality of abattoir effluents discharged into water bodies in Abuja, Nigeria., ISRN Vet. Sci., 10, 14 -24.
  55. WHO/FAO/IAEA. World Health Organization. Switzerland: Geneva. (1996)., Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health.,
  56. Adesemoye A.O., Opere B.O. and Makinde S.C.O. (2006)., Microbial Content of Abattoir Waste Water and its Contaminated Soil in Lagos, Nigeria., African Journal of Biotechnology, 5(20), 1963-1968.
  57. Neboh H.A., IIusanya O.A., Ezekoye C.C. and Orji F.A. (2013)., Assessment of Ijebu-Igbo Abattoir Effluent and its Impact on the Ecology of the Receiving Soil and River., IOSR Journal of Environmental Science and Food Technology, 7(5), 61-67.
  58. Ojo O.F., Adewumi D.G. and Oluwatoyin A.K. (2016)., Glutathione-S-transferase production in earthworm (Annelida: Eudrilidae) as a tool for heavy metal pollution assessment in abattoir soil., Revista de biologia tropical, 64(2), 779-789.
  59. Oyedele D.J., Gasu M.B. and Awotoye O.O. (2008)., Changes in Soil Properties and Plant Uptake of Heavy Metals on Selected Municipal Solid Waste Dumpsites in IIe-Ife, Nigeria., African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2(5), 107-115.
  60. Allorge D.O. (1992)., Abattoir Design Management and Effluent Disposal in Nigera., University of Ibadan Press. Ibadan, 254.
  61. Okoro D., Oviasogie P.O. and Oviasogie F.E. (2011)., Soil quality assessment 33 months after crude oil spillage and clean-up., Chemical Speciation & Bioavailability, 23(1), 1-6.
  62. Iwegbue C.M.A., Egobueze F.E. and Opuene K. (2006)., Preliminary assessment of heavy metals levels of soils of an oil field in the Niger Delta, Nigeria., International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 3(2), 167-172.
  63. Hazelton P.A. and Murphy B.W. (2007)., Interpreting Soil Test Results: What do all the numbers mean?., CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne, 45-67.
  64. Rayment G.E. and Higginson F.R. (1992)., Cation Exchange Capacity in Australian Laboratory Handbook of Soil and Water Chemical Methods., Inkata Press: Melbourne.
  65. Osu C.I. and Okereke V.C. (2015)., Heavy Metal Accumulation from Abattoir Wastes on Soils and some Edible Vegetables in Selected Areas in Umuahia metropolis., International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 4(6), 1127-1132.
  66. Onianwa P.C. and Essien C.A. (1999)., Petroleum hydrocarbon levels in sediments of streams and rivers within Ibadan City, Nigeria., Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 13(1), 83-86.
  67. Abubakar G.A. and Tukur A. (2014)., Impact of Abattoir Effluent on Soil Chemical Properties in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria., International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 1, 100-107.
  68. Holland M.D.G., Barton A.D. and Morph S.T. (1989)., Land Evaluation for Agricultural Recommendations for Cross River National Park., Oban Division. Prepared by Odwki in Collaboration with INNF.
  69. Sumayya B.U., Usman B.U., Aisha U., Shahida A., Mohammad A., Yakubu M.S. and Zainab M. (2013)., Determination of Physiochemical Qualities of Abattoir Effluent on Soil and Water in Gandu, Sokoto State., IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 4(4), 47-50.
  70. Simeon E.O. and Friday K. (2017)., Index Models Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils within Selected Abattoirs in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria., Singapore Journal of Scientific Research, 7, 9-15.
  71. FEPA (1997)., Guidelines and standard for environmental impact assessment in Nigeria., 87-95.
  72. Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) (1999)., National Guidelines and Standards for Soil Quality in Nigeria., FEPA, Rivers State Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Port Harcourt.
  73. Shittu O.S., Ogunwale J.A. and Ayodele O.J. (2010)., Total and extractable iron and manganese in soils developed on charnockite in Ekiti State, Nigeria., International Journal of Water and soil Resources Research, 1(1-3), 83-93.
  74. Hong A.H., Ling L.P. and Selaman O.S. (2014)., Environmental Burden of Heavy Metal Contamination Levels in Soil from Sewage Irrigation Area of Geriyo Catchment, Nigeria., Civil and Environmental Research, 6(10), 118-124.
  75. Atlas R.M. and Bartha R. (2007)., Microbial Ecology: Fundamentals and Applications, Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company Inc, India., 34-39.
  76. Alonge D.O. (1991)., Textbook of Meat Hygiene in the Tropics., Farm Coe Press, Ibadan, Nigeria, 12-15.