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Cadmium status in soils: A review on sources and chemistry

Author Affiliations

  • 1Bhilai Institute of Technology, Durg, Chattisgarh, India
  • 2Rugta College of Engineering and Technology, Bhilai, Chattisgarh, India

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 7, Issue (6), Pages 23-25, June,18 (2017)

Abstract

Heavy metals entering the food chain through plants occur naturally in the soil. These are seldom toxic for the living organisms until, present in excessive concentrations. The occurrence of cadmium(Cd) in agricultural soils depend upon its concentration in the parent rock from which it weathered, additions from fertilizers and soil conditioners. Cadmium is found to be enriched in sedimentary rocks than in igneous or metamorphic rocks. Anthropogenic sources includes phosphatic fertilizers containing excessive levels of Cd which increases its concentration in surface soils. Mobility of heavy metals due to anthropogenic origin has found to be more than the geogenic ones. Arial deposition of Cd in rural areas is contributed by combustion of fossil fuels, smelting and processing of ores which is comparable to that added to soil from fertilizers and improvements. Bioconcentrations of Cd in plants grown in an elevated level in soil is maximum compared to other heavy metals. The degree of enrichment depend upon the level of Cd present in the soil, the crop species, and the chemical properties of the soil.

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