Cadmium status in soils: A review on sources and chemistry
- 1Bhilai Institute of Technology, Durg, Chattisgarh, India
- 2Rugta College of Engineering and Technology, Bhilai, Chattisgarh, India
Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 7, Issue (6), Pages 23-25, June,18 (2017)
Heavy metals entering the food chain through plants occur naturally in the soil. These are seldom toxic for the living organisms until, present in excessive concentrations. The occurrence of cadmium(Cd) in agricultural soils depend upon its concentration in the parent rock from which it weathered, additions from fertilizers and soil conditioners. Cadmium is found to be enriched in sedimentary rocks than in igneous or metamorphic rocks. Anthropogenic sources includes phosphatic fertilizers containing excessive levels of Cd which increases its concentration in surface soils. Mobility of heavy metals due to anthropogenic origin has found to be more than the geogenic ones. Arial deposition of Cd in rural areas is contributed by combustion of fossil fuels, smelting and processing of ores which is comparable to that added to soil from fertilizers and improvements. Bioconcentrations of Cd in plants grown in an elevated level in soil is maximum compared to other heavy metals. The degree of enrichment depend upon the level of Cd present in the soil, the crop species, and the chemical properties of the soil.
- Elinder C.G. (1985)., Cadmium: Uses, occurrence and intake., In: Friberg L, Elinder CG, Kjellström T, et al., editors. Cadmium and health: A toxicological and epidemiological appraisal. Vol. I. Exposure, dose, and metabolism. Effects and response. Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 23-64.
- Calabrese, S., Aiuppa, A., Allard, P., Bagnato, E., Bellomo, S., Alessandro W.D., Parello F. and Brusca L. (2011)., Atmospheric sources and sinks of volcanogenic elements in a basaltic volcano (Etna,Italy)., Geochim Cosmochim Acta., 75(23), 7401-7425.
- Quezada-Hinojosa R.P., Föllmi K.B., Verrecchia E., Adatte T. and Matera V. (2015)., Speciation and multivariable analyses of geogenic cadmium in soils at Le Gurnigel, Swiss Jura Mountains., CATENA., 125,10-32.
- Pouyat R.V. and McDonnell M.J. (1991)., Heavy metal accumulation in forest soils along an urban-rural gradient in southeastern New York., Water, Soil, and Air Poll., 57(1), 797-807.
- Filipek L.H., Nordstrom D.K. and Ficklin W.H. (1987)., Interaction of acid mine drainage with waters and sediments of West Squaw Creek in the West Shasta Mining District, California., Env. Sci. Technol., 21(4), 388-396.
- Brown S.L., Chaney R.L., Angle J.S. and Baker A.J.M. (1995)., Zinc and cadmium uptake by hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulscens grown in nutrient solution., Soil Sci. Soc. A. J., 59, 125-133.
- Storm G.L., Fosmire G.J. and Bellis E.D. (1994)., Persistence of metals in soil and selected vertebrates in the vicinity of the Palmerton zinc smelters., J.Env.Qual., 23(3), 508-514.
- Alloway B.J. (1995)., Heavy Metals in Soils. Blackie Academic and Professional., London, UK, 2nd edition.
- Pierzynski G.M., Sims J.T. and Vance G.F. (2005)., Soils and Environmental Quality., CRC Press, London, UK, 2nd edition.
- Prokop Z., Cupr P., Zlevorova-Zlamalikova V., Komarek J., Dusek J. and Holoubek I. (2003)., Mobility, bioavailability, and toxic effects of cadmium in soil samples., Environ.Res., 91(2), 119-126.
- Naidu R., Kookana R.S., Sumner M.E., Harter R.D. and Tiller K.G. (1997)., Cadmium sorption and transport in variable charge soils: a review., J.Environ.Qual., 26(3), 602-617.
- Krishnamurti G.S.R., Huang P.M., Van Rees K.C.J., Kozak L.M. and Rostad H.P.W. (1995)., Speciation of particulate-bound cadmium in soils and its bioavailability., Analyst, 120(3), 659-665.
- Mench M.J. (1998)., Cadmium availability to plants in relation to major long-term changes in agronomy systems., Agricult. Ecosyst. Environ., 67, 175-187.
- Davis R.D. and Carlton-Smith C. (1980)., Crops as indicators of the significance of contamination of soils by heavy metals., Technical report TR 140, Water Research Centre, Stevenage,England.
- Bingham F.T., Page A.L., Mahler R.J. and Ganje T.J. (1975)., Growth and cadmium accumulation of plants grown on a soil treated with cadmium-enriched sewage sludge., J. Environ. Qual., 4(2), 207-211.
- Lokeshwari H. and Chandrappa G.T. (2006)., Impact of heavy metal contamination of Bellandur lake on soil and cultivated vegetation., Curr. Sci., 91(5), 622-627.
- Bruemmer G.W., Gerth J. and Herms U. (1986)., Heavy metal species, mobility, and availability in soils., J.plant nut.& soil sci., 149(4), 382-398.
- McBride M.B. (1994)., Environmental chemistry in soils., Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.
- Sauve S., McBride M.B. and Hendershot W.H. (1998)., Lead phosphate solubility in water and soil suspensions., Environ. Sci. Technol., 32(3), 388-393.
- Williams C.H. and David D.J. (1973)., The effect of superphosphate on the cadmium content of soils and plants., Aus. J. Soil Res., 11(1), 43-56
- Eriksson J.E. (1990)., Factors Influencing Adsorption and Plant Uptake of Cadmium from Agricultural Soils., Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil Sciences, ISBN 9157641110.
- Elder J.F. (1989)., Metal biogeochemistry in surface-water systems-A review of principles and concepts., U.S. Geological Survey Circular, 1013, 43.
- Rieuwerts J.S. (2007)., The mobility and bioavailability of trace metals in tropical soils: a review., Chem. Spec. Bioav., 19(2), 75-85.