9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Assessment of trace elements in some commonly consumed fish species marketed in Kathmandu, Nepal

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Zoology, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal
  • 2Department of Chemistry, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal
  • 3Global Environment Consutant Limited, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 4Department of Chemistry, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 7, Issue (2), Pages 42-48, February,18 (2017)

Abstract

In recent years, the consumption of fish in Nepal has been increasing largely due to its high nutritional value. However, it could bring serious health impacts due to heavy metals in elevated quantity since bioaccumulation of metals in aquatic inhabitants enter into human body through food chain. In this study, levels of Pb and Cd were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) in a total of 20 fish samples of four fish species viz., Buhari (Wallago attu), Mugree (Clarias batrachus), Catla (Catla catla) and Rohu (Labeo rohita) marketed in Kathmandu. Four various organs (liver, flesh, intestine and gills) of each fish species were analyzed as potential sites for accumulation of these toxic metals. The overall concentration ranges considering all the organs for the metals analyzed in mg kg-1 (dry basis) were Pb (0.02 – 0.47) and Cd (0.01 – 0.29) for Buhari (Wallago attu), Pb (0.02 – 1.29) and Cd (0.04 – 0.24) for Mugree (Clarias batrachus), Pb (0.02 – 0.11) and Cd (0.01 – 0.22) for Catla (Catla catla) and Pb (0.02 – 1.10) and Cd (0.01 – 0.39) for Rohu (Labeo rohita). The results also revealed variation in metal concentration in various organs of the fish species. All the fish samples except Buhari (Wallago attu) recorded higher accumulation of Pb and Cd in gills. An estimation of Pb and Cd weekly intake through the fish consumption was also investigated. The results showed that the concentrations of Pb and Cd in these fish species did not exceed the maximum permitted limits set forth by FAO/WHO indicating that they are safe for human consumption. However, a regular monitoring and assessment of toxic contaminants in fish marketed in Kathmandu is needed to help safeguard the health of humans and environment as well.

References

  1. Fallah A.A., Saei-Dehkordi S.S., Nematollahi A. and Jafari T. (2011)., Comparative study of heavy metal and trace element accumulation in edible tissues of farmed and wild rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using ICP-OES technique., Microchem. J., 98(2), 275-279.
  2. Castro-gongalez M.I. and Mendez-Armenta M. (2008)., Heavy Metals implication associated to fish consumption,. Environ., Texicol.Pharmacol, 26(3), 263-271.
  3. King R.P. and Jonathan G.E. (2003)., Aquatic environmental perturbations and monitoring., African experience, USA, 166.
  4. Ibok U.J., Udosen E.D. and Udoidiong O.M. (1989)., Heavy Metals in Fishes from Streams in Ikot Ekpene Area of Nigeria., Nigeria J. Tech. Res, 1, 61-68.
  5. Papagiannis I., Kagalou L., Leonardos J., Petridis D. and Kalfakakou V. (2004)., Copper and zinc in four fresh water fish species from Lake Pamvotis (Greece)., Enviro. Int, 30(3), 357-362.
  6. Marcotrigiano G.O. and Storelli M.M. (2003)., Heavy metal, polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide residues in marine organisms: Risk evaluation for consumers., Vet. Res. Commun., 27(1), 183-195.
  7. Sultana R. and Rao D.P. (1998)., Bioaccumulation patterns of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in grey mullet, Mugil cephalus (L.), from harbour waters of Visakhapatnam, India., Bull. Eviron. Contam. Toxicol, 60(6), 949-955.
  8. Cot-committee on Toxicity (2004)., Advise on fish consumption: Benefits and risks. Food Standards Agency and Department of Health., Norwich, UK: Her Royal Majesty’s Stationary.
  9. Joint FAO/WHO (2004)., Expert Committee on Food Additives, Summary of evaluation performed by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on food additives (JECFA 1956-2003)., Washington DC: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization, ILSI Press Internal Life Sciences Institute.
  10. Codex Alimentarius Commission (2001)., Food additives and contaminants, Joint, FAO., WHO Food standards Programme, ALINORM, 1, 289.
  11. Tepe Y., Turkmen M. and Turkmen A. (2008)., Assessment of heavy metals in two commercial fish species of four Turkish Seas., Environ. Monit. Assess., 146(1), 277-284.
  12. Storelli M.M. and Marcotrigiano G.O. (2005)., Bioindicator organisms: Heavy metal pollution evaluation in the Ionian sea (Mediterranean sea–Italy)., Environ. Monit. Assess., 102(1), 159-166.
  13. Khalil M. and Faragallah H. (2008)., The distribution of some leachable and total heavy metals in core sediments of Manzala lagoon, Egypt., Egypt J. Aquat. Res, 34(1), 1-11.
  14. Marzouk M. (1994)., Fish and environmental pollution., Vet. Med. J, 42, 51-52.
  15. Deb S.C. and Fukushima T. (1999)., Metals in aquatic ecosystems: Mechanism of uptake, accumulation and release., Int. J. Environ. Stud., 56(3), 385-417.
  16. Ishaq S.E., Rufus S.A. and Annune P.A. (2011)., Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Fish (Tilapia Zilli and Clarias Gariepinus) Organs from River Benue, North Central Nigeria., Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem, 12(1-2), 25-31.
  17. US EPA (2004)., What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish., United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA-823-F-04-009, Retrieved May 5, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/fish/MethylmercuryBrochure.pdf
  18. Falco G., Llobet J.M., Bocio A. and Domingo J.L. (2006)., Daily intake of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead by consumption of edible marine species., J. Agric. Food Chem., 54(16), 6106-6112.
  19. Morgano M.A., Rabonato L.C., Milani R.F., Miyagusku L. and Balian S.C. (2011)., Assessment of trace elements in fishes of Japanese foods marketed in Sao Paulo (Brazil)., Food Control, 22(5), 778-785.
  20. Marti-Cid R., Llobet J.M., Castell V. and Domingo J.L. (2008)., Dietary intake of arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead by the population of Catalonia, Spain., Biol. Trace Elem. Res, 125(2), 120-132.