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Physico-Chemical Analysis of Drinking Water Samples from Different Regions of Nagpur and Amravati in Maharashtra State, India

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemistry, Brijlal Biyani Science College Amravati, Maharashtra, India

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 6, Issue (7), Pages 48-61, July,18 (2016)

Abstract

During the last few years, there has been an increasing realization that water resources are limited and must be conserved, leading to the necessity for stringent quality control. Many of the communicable diseases having the greatest impact on mankind are waterborne, and a permanent reduction in morbidity and mortality can most effectively be achieved by providing safe drinking water, Effective water quality management involves systematic programme of sampling and analysis of river, lake and ground water and all stages of waste treatment. Proven and harmonized procedures must be adopted if results are to be reliable, reproducible and comparable. Analytical procedures needed to obtain quantitative information are often a mixture of chemical, bioĖchemical, biological, bacteriological, bioassay and instrumental methods. Physicochemical analysis is the prime consideration to assess the quality of water for its best usage say for drinking, bathing, fishing, industrial processing and so on, while for waste water either domestic or industrial to known the pollution strength and its effect on the ecology. River water often necessitates examination of water samples from different points and under varying condition to find out the extent of pollution and natural purification that takes place in the water. Well water are examined to locate the potable sources of water as well as to study the effect of pumping in coastal areas, or in saline water tracts. Waters are also examined to test the samples to ascertain their suitability for particular trade, e.g. paper making, tanning, steam raising, dying, daring etc. In such case a particular parameter assumes importance e.g. for steam raising water should be checked for hardness and dissolved oxygen, water used in textiles should be checked for iron and hardness. Similarly domestic and industrial waste waters are analyzed for various parameters to decide upon what physical, chemical or biological treatment should be given to make them suitable for discharge either on land for irrigation or in other water bodies. Comparatively this analysis for example determination of pH, temperature, DO, COD can be done quick enough to adopt by regulatory agencies to monitor and control the ecological balance of nature. Quantitative analytical procedure fall into three broad groups, viz. gravimetric, volumetric and colorimetric estimations. Advanced techniques of analysis for certain parameters make use of special electrodes, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, chromatography etc. The objectives of the present study was to analyze physicochemical and biological parameters of drinking water samples collected from the selective localities of Maharashtra state to assess health impacts linked with the consumption of drinking water and to suggest possible mitigation measures for the identified problems. Likewise physico-chemical analysis of 45 drinking water samples was carried out to develop a data base on the quality of water being consumed in different areas of Maharashtra state. The drinking water samples were taken from the main water sources where maximum peoples were using them for drinking purpose. Physicochemical analysis of water is categorized as Mineral Analysis consisting of physical parameters and significant anions and cations, Demand Analysis covering COD, BOD, DO, Permanganate value etc., Nutrient Analysis consisting of different forms of nitrogen, phosphorous and Heavy Metal Analysis covering analysis of heavy metals by different methods along with sample pretreatment. Measurement of Temperature, pH, Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Salinity, Turbidity and Dissolved Oxygen was done by Digital Water and Soil Analysis kit Labtronics Model-191E-an ISO 9001. Different methods were applied to determine the quantities of other components. Most of the water samples were within WHO/ ISI standards. For samples which do not have physico-chemical parameters within desirable limit, treatment for correction of corresponding parameter is to be done. The results of the present research work showed that drinking water collected from different areas of Maharashtra state was found to be suitable for human health. It is recommended to boil water, use aqua guards, proper chlorination, use efficient system for garbage collection and its disposal, sewage waste treatment, recycling of waste into useful products such fertilizers, education of people through media about the causes and consequences of water pollution.

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