9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies on Adsorption of Cd2+ and Zn2+ using Brachystegia eurycoma Seed coat as Biosorbent

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, P.M.B 7267, Umuahia, Abia State, NIGERIA
  • 2 Department of Industrial Chemistry, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B. 053 Abakaliki, NIGERIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 5, Issue (2), Pages 32-41, February,18 (2015)


The potential of B.eurycoma seed coat as biosorbent for removing Cd2+ and Zn2+ from aqueous solutions has been studied. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as function of pH, initial metal ion concentration and temperature. Maximum metal sorption was found to occur at pH 6.0 at initial concentration of 30 mg/L and at 300C. The maximum adsorption capacity of B.eurycoma corresponding to sites saturation was found to be 4.286 and 4.390 mg/g respectively for initial Cd2+and Zn2+ concentration of 30 mg/L at a temperature of 400 C. The results were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) isotherms using linearized correlation coefficient at different temperatures. Results showed that the Langmuir and Freundlich models gave the best interpretation to the equilibrium adsorption data for the Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions–B.eurycoma systems studied. The following thermodynamic parameters: ΔH, ΔS and ΔG were calculated and results obtained showed that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous.


  1. Nazris N., Rahmiana Z., Edison M. and Jiye J., Biosorption of Copper (II), Lead (II), Cadmium (II) and Zinc (II) ions from aqueous solution by Nypa fruticansShell on batch method. J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 6(12), 370-376 (2014)
  2. Onwu F.K., Abii T.A. and Ogbonna A.C., Kinetic studies on the use of agricultural wastes for the removal of lead, cadmium and nickel ions from aqueous solutions, J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 6(12), 471-480 (2014)
  3. Cordero B., Lodeiro P., Herrero R. and Sastre de Vicente M.E., Biosorption of Cadmium by Fucus spiralis, Environ. Chem. 1, 180-187 (2004)
  4. Crini G., Recent development of Polysaccharide-based materials used as adsorbent in waste water treatment, Progress in Polym. Sci., 30, 38-70 (2005)
  5. Igwe J.C. and Abia A.A., A bioseparation process for removing heavy metals from waste water using biosorbents. African Journal of Biotechnol., 5(12),1167-1179 (2006)
  6. Dada A.O., Olalekan A.P., Olatunya A.M. and Dada O., Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich Isotherms Studies of Equilibrium Sorption of Zn2+ Unto Phosphoric Acid Modified Rice Husk, IOSR Journal of Applied Chem., 3(1), 38-45 (2012)
  7. Volesky B., Detoxification of metal-bearing effluents: biosorption for the next century, Hydrometallurgy,59, 203–216 (2001)
  8. Bhattacharya A.K., Mandal S.N. and Das S.K., Adsorption of Zn(II) from aqueous solution by using different adsorbents, Journal Chem. Eng., 123, 43–51 (2006)
  9. Krishnan K.A. and Anirudhan T.S., Removal of Cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by steam-activated sulphurised carbon prepared from sugar-cane bagassepith : Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies, Water SA, 29(2), 147-156 (2003)
  10. Filipic M., Molecular mechanisms of cadmium induced mutagenicity, Human Exp. Toxicol., 25, 67-77 (2006)
  11. Akesson A., Julin B. and Wolk A., Long-term dietary cadmium intake and postmenopausal endometrial cancer incidence: a population-based prospective cohort study, Cancer Res., 68, 6435-6441 (2008)
  12. Kumar R., Abraham T.N and Jain S.K., The removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions using silica support immobilized with 2-hydroxyacetonephenone-3-thiosemicarbazone, nd International Conference on Environmental Science and Development, 4, 48-52 (2011)
  13. Manoj K.G., Sarita S., Ashok K.S. and Sanjay V., Study on removal of arsenic from aqueous solutions by low cost adsorbent, International Journal of Chem. Stud., 2(3), 30-35 (2014)
  14. Horsfall M. Jnr. and Spiff A.I., Equilibrium Sorption Study of Al3+, Co2+ and Ag in Aqueous Solutions by Fluted Pumpkin (TelfairiaOccidentalis HOOK f) Waste Biomass, Acta Chim. Slov.,52, 174-181 (2005)
  15. Malkoc E. and Nuhoglu Y., Determination of kinetic and equilibrium parameters of the batch adsorption of Cr(VI) onto waste acorn of Quercus ithaburensis, Chem. Eng. Proces.,46, 1020-1029 (2007)
  16. Abia A.A. and Asuquo E.D., Sorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions onto chemically unmodified and modified iol palm fruit fibre adsorbent: Analysis of pseudo second order kinetic models, Indian Journal of Chem.Technol., 15, 341-348 (2008)
  17. Onwu, F.K. and Ogah S.P.I., Studies on the effect of pH on the sorption of cadmium(II), Nickel(II), lead(II) and chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions by African white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidium) shell. African Journal of Biotechnol., 9(42),7086-7093 (2010)
  18. Igwe O.U. and Okwu D.E., Phytochemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of Brachystegiaeurycoma seeds and stem bark, Der Pharma Chemica, 5(1), 224-228 (2013)
  19. Ogbonna A.C., Abii T.A. and Onwu F.K., Equilibrium studies on biosorption of lead, cadmium and nickel ions using cassava waste biomass, J. Chem. Pharm. Res,6(12), 418-432 (2014)
  20. Farghali A.A, Bahgat M., Allah A.E. and Khedr M.H., Adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions using copper oxide nanostructures, Journal of Basic and Applied Sci., 261-71 (2013)
  21. Karthikeyan T.S., Rajgopal L.R., Miranda, Chromium(VI) adsorption from aqueous solution by Hevea Brasilinesis sawdust activated carbon, J. Hazard. Mater., B124, 192–199 (2005)
  22. Dursun G., Çiçek H. and Dursun A.Y., Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution by using carbonised beet pulp, J. Hazard. Mater., B125, 175–182
  23. Anusiem A.C.I., Onwu F.K and Ogah S.P.I., Adsorption Isotherm Studies of Ni(ll), Cd (ll) and Pb (ll) ions from Aqueous Solutions by African White Star Apple Chrysophyllum albidium) Shell, International Journal of Chem., 20(4), 265-274 (2005)
  24. Chengwen S., Shuaihua W., Murong C., Ping T., Mihua S. and Guangrui G., Adsorption Studies of Coconut Shell Carbons Prepared by KOH Activation for Removal of Lead(II) From Aqueous Solutions, Sustainability, 6, 86-98 (2014)