9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Synthesis and Characterization of Poly Acrylic Acid Modified with Dihydroxy Benzene-Redox Polymer

Author Affiliations

  • 1PG & Research Department of Chemistry, Auxilium College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, INDIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 4, Issue (5), Pages 1-9, May,18 (2014)


Poly acrylic acid was functionalized with catechol, hydroquinone, catechol-hydroquinone, a homolytic modification by an oxidative decarboxylation using ammonium persulphate as an oxidant. The chemically modified PAA/Catechol, PAA/Hydroquinone and PAA/Catechol-Hydroquinone were characterized using UV and FT-IR. Thermal analysis shows PAA/Catechol, and PAA-Hydroquinone are stable above 700oC and their Ea are lesser for PAA/Hydroquinone with the highest percentage of substitution than the other two polymers. The kinetic parameters were calculated from the TGA curves and the average molecular weight measured by viscometer was found to be around 1.1X106 g/mol. From XRD studies the prepared polymers were found to be semi crystalline nature which is confirmed from the SEM analysis. The morphology of the redox polymer was found to be rod and cage like microstructure. From the CV studies, the potential difference was calculated.


  1. Hadjichristidis N., Pitsikalis M., Pispas S. and Iatrou H., Polymers with Complex Architecture by Living Anionic Polymerization, Chem. Rev., 101, 3747-3792 (2001)
  2. Vincent Darcos and David M. Haddleton, Synthesis of ABABA pentablock copolymers via copper mediated living radical polymerization, Eur. Polym. J.,39, 855–862 (2003)
  3. Goethals E.J., Dubreuil M., Wang Y., De Witte I., D. Christova, S. Verbrugghe, N. Yanul, L. Tanghe, G. Mynarczuk and F. Du Prez, New polymer architectures by cationic ring-opening polymerization, Macromol. Symp., 153, 209-216 (2000)
  4. Davis K.A. and Matyjaszewski K., Synthesis of polymerbrushes using atom transfer radical polymerization, Adv. Polym. Sci., 159, 77-88 (2002)
  5. Hawker C.J., Bosman A.W. and Harth E., Thermal Self-Initiation in Stable Free-Radical Polymerization of styrene,Chem. Rev., 101, 3661-3688 (2001)
  6. Perrier S. and Takolpuckdee P., Macromolecular design via reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)/xanthates (MADIX) polymerization, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem., 43, 5347-5393 (2005)
  7. Tyagid D., Hedrick J.L., Webster D.C., Mcgrath J.E. and Wilkes G.L., Structure-property relationships in perfectly alternating segmented poly sulfones/ polydimethylsiloxane copolymer, Polym. J, 29(5), 883-893 (1988)
  8. Hoogenboom R., Poly (2-oxazoline)s: Alive and Kicking, Macromol.Chem. Phys.,208, 18-25 (2007)
  9. Burland D.M., Miller R.D. and Walsh C.A., Second order non linearity in poled- polymer systems, Chem. Rev., 94, 31-75 (1994)
  10. Angiolini L., Benelli T., Giorgini L. and Salatelli E., Synthesis of optically active methacrylic oligomeric models and polymers bearing the side-chain azo-aromatic moiety and dependence of their chiroptical properties on the polymerization degree, Polym. 47, 1875–1885 (2006)
  11. Rosseinsky D.R. and Mortimer R., Electrochromic Systems and the Prospects for Devicesed, . Adv. Mater,13, 783-793(2001)
  12. Grote J.G., Zetts J.S., Nelson R.L., Hopkins F.K., Dalton L.R., Zhang C. and Steier W.H., Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers, Opt. Eng., 40, 2464-2473 (2001)
  13. Eugenii Katz and Itamar Willner, A Biofuel Cell with Electrochemically Switchable and Tunable Power Output, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 125, 6803-6813 (2003)
  14. E. De Giglio E, S. Cometa.S, Cioffi. N, Torsi, L, and Sabbatini, L. Analytical investigations of poly(acrylic acid) coatings electrodeposited on titanium-based implants: a versatile approach to biocompatibility enhancement, Polym. J., 47, 1875–1885 (2006)
  15. Eyad M. Nawafleh, Tareq T. Bataineh, Muna K. Irshedat, Mahmoud A. Al-Qudah and Sultan T. Abu Orabi Inhibition of Aluminum Corrosion by Salvia Judica Extract Res. J. Chem. Sci., 3(8), 68-72 (2013)
  16. Ping-Sheng Liu, Li Li, Ning-Lin Zhou, Jun Zhang, Shao-Hua Wei, Jian Shen. Synthesis and Properties of a Poly(acrylic acid)/ Montmorillonite Superabsorbent Nanocomposite, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 102, 5725–5730 (2006)
  17. Moulay S., Dihydroxy benzene/ benzoquinone containing polymers: organic redox polymer, Actualite Chimique,12, 7-8 (2000)
  18. Moulay S., Polymers with dihydroxy/dialkoxybenzene moieties, C.R. Chimie, 12, 577-601 (2009)
  19. Saravanakumar K. and Kubendran T.R., Density and Viscosities for the Binary Mixtures of 1, 4-Dioxane and Benzene or Chlorobenzene at 303.15, 308.15, 313.15 K and a Pressure of 0.1MPa, Res.J.Chem.Sci.,2(4), 50-56 (2012) 50
  20. Barbara Mendrek, Barbara Trzebicka, Synthesis and characterization of well-defined poly(tert-butyl acrylate) star polymers Eur. Polym. J, 45, 1979–1993 (2009)
  21. Mahaveer D., Kurkur, Jae-Rock Lee., Jae Hung Han., and In Lee. 2006. Electroactive behavior of poly (acrylic acid) grafted poly(vinyl alcohol), their synthesis by Ce(IV) glucose redox system and characterization, Smart Mater. Struct.,15(2), 417-423 (2006)
  22. Singru R.N. Synthesis, characterization and thermal degradation studies of copolymer resins p-cresol-oxamide-formaldehyde,Arch. Appl. Sci. Res., 3(5), 309-325 (2011)
  23. Anuradha Rangaraj, Veena Vangani, Animesh K Rakshit. Synthesis and Characterization of some Water Soluble Polymers, J. Appl. Polym. Sci.,66, 45–56 (1997)
  24. Moulay S. and Mehdaoui R., Hydroquinone/catechol-bearing polyacrylic acid: redox polymer, React. Funct. Poly., 61, 265–275 (2004)
  25. Richard D. Beaty and Jack D. Kerber, Concepts, Instrumentation and Techniques in Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, 2nd ed., pp.1-6. Norwalk, CT: The Perkin-Elmer Corporation (1993)
  26. Dhanraj T. Masram., Bhave N.S. and Kariya K.P., Synthesis, Characterization and Thermal Degradation Study of Terpolymer-derived from -Hydroxybenzoic Acid, Diaminonaphthelein with Formaldehyde, High Perform. Polym, 22, 1004–1016 (2010)
  27. William Kemp. Organic Spectroscopy Ed. 3, 60 – 71, Newyork: Palgrave (1991)
  28. Mustafa aslan Statistical thermodynamics of linear macromolecular structures: a systematic expansion to simha somcynsky lattice hole-Theory, Journal of Naval Science and Engineering., 6 (3), 11-24(2010)
  29. Yaman boluk and LiyanZhao., Determination of shape nano crystalline cellulose rods International conference on nanotechnology for forest products industry (2009)
  30. Neeti Sah, Renu Loshali, Rajendra Joshi, Kiran Pandey, Jagdish Prasad and Narain D. Kandpal, Physicochemical studies on nanosized material formed from acrylic acid and poly-di-methylsiloxane polymerization assisted by microwave, Der Chemica Sinica.,3(6), 1421-1427 (2012)
  31. D. Patidar , D., Rathore, K.S., N. S. Saxen, N.S., Kananbala Sharma, Sharma, T.P. Energy band gap and conductivity measurement of CdSe thin films, chalcogenide letters, 5(2), 21-25 (2008)
  32. Sailaja G.S., Velayudhan S., Sunny M.C., Sreenivasan K., Varma H.K. and Ramesh P., Hydroxyapatite filled chitosan-polyacrylic acid polyelectrolyte complexes, Journal of materials science, 38, 3653 – 3662 (2003)
  33. Ferriol M., Gentilhomme A., Cochez N., Oget N. and Mieloszynski J.L., Thermal degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA): modelling of DTG and TG curves, Polym. Degrad. Stab.,79, 271–281 (2003)
  34. Dharkar K.P., Khamborkar A.K. and Kalambe A.B., Thermal Degradation Analysis of Melamine-Aniline-Formaldehyde Terpolymeric Ligand, Res.J.Chem. Sci., 2(12), 11-16 (2012)
  35. Vitaliy V Khutoryanskiy., Maria Grazia Cascone., Luigi Lazzeri., Niccoletta Barbani., Zauresh S Nurkeeva., Grigoriy A Mun., and Artem V Dubolazov. Morphological and thermal characterization of interpolymer complexes and blends based on poly(acrylic acid) and hydroxypropylcellulose, Polym Int.,53, 307–311 (2004)
  36. Xiao-Dong Fan, You-Lo Hsieh, John M. Krochta, Mark J. Kurth. 2001. Study on Molecular Interaction Behavior, and Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polyacrylic Acid and Lactose Blends, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 82, 1921-1927 (2001)
  37. Schrebler R., Dell Valle M.E., Gomez H., Veas C. and Cordova R., Preparation of poly thiopene-modified electrodes by electrodeposition of Pt and Pt + Pb. Application to formic acid electro-oxidation, J. Electroanal. Chem., 380, 219-227 (1995)