9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Assessment of Heavy Metal Distribution in Groundwater in and around Gulf of Mannar Seashore Area Using GIS Technique

Author Affiliations

  • 1Dept of Chemistry, Mohamed Sathak AJ College of Engineering, Siruseri, Chennai-603103, INDIA
  • 2School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai – 625 021, INDIA
  • 3Dept of Chemistry, Sriram Engineering College, Veppampattu RS, Chennai-602024, INDIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 4, Issue (1), Pages 9-16, January,18 (2014)

Abstract

The present study was carried out to analyze the heavy metal level of 25 bore and duck wells located at the different localities in and around Gulf of Manner seashore area during the period of pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons. Arsenic (As), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg) and Lead (Pb) concentrations in groundwater were analyzed by Atomic absorption spectrometer. The results were compared with drinking water standard prescribed by WHO, BIS, ICMR and FAO. This study shows that most of samples has high concentration of heavy metals (exceeds maximum permissible limit). A slight increment in concentration of individual metals is produced in summer season than in winter season. This study shows that all samples contains high concentrations of Hg, Pb and Mn above the maximum permissible limits as prescribed by WHO, BIS, ICMR and FAO. The spatial distributions of heavy metal in ground water were taken to Geological Information System (GIS). In Arc GIS, spatial distribution maps were prepared for the above analyzed heavy metals.

References

  1. Muthulakshmi L., Ramu A., Kannan N., Physico – Chemical characteristics of Groundwater in and around Sivakasi region, Indian J.Environ.Prot., 29(5), 435–438 (2009)
  2. Deshpande S.M. and Aher K.R., Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agriculture use in parts of Vaijapur District, Aurangabad, MS, India, Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 2(1), 25–31 (2012)
  3. Annapoorani A., Murugesan A., Ramu A., Renganathan G., Groundwater Quality Assesment in Part of Chennai City, Tamilnadu, India – Case study, Indian Jr. of Sci, 1(1), 47-50 ( 2012)
  4. Karavoltsos S., Sakellari A., Mihopoulos N., Dassenakis M. and Scoullos M.J., Evaluation of Quality of Groundwater in regions of Greece, Desalination, 224(1-3), 371-329(2008)
  5. Vaishnav M.M. and Dewangan S., Assessment of water Quality status in Reference to statistical parameters in different aquifers of Balco Industrial area, Korba, C.G, India, Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 1(9), 67–72 (2011)
  6. Ruthann Rude, Tracey M., Slayton, Barbara D., Bech, Implications of Arsenic Genotoxicity for Dose response of Carcinogenic Effects, Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, 23(2), 87–105 (1996)
  7. Openshow, S.A., Environment and planning, 23, 5, 621-628 (1991)
  8. Rao J.V. Kavitha, P. Srikanth, K.Usman, P.K and RavT.G, The use of marine sponge, Haliclona tenuiramosa as bioindicator to monitor heavy metal pollution in the coasts of Gulf of Mannar, India, Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 89(3), 487 – 498 (2007)
  9. Sulochanan B., Krishnakumar P.K., Prema D., Kaladharan, Trace metal contamination of the marine environment in Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar, Journal of Marine Biological Association of India 49(1), 12 – 18 (2007)
  10. Vanmathi G. and Gobalakrishnan S., Heavy metals in Tuticorin coast, Indian J.Environ.Prot, 20(6), 447-451 (1999)
  11. Prasad B. and Bose J.M, Evaluation of the heavy metal pollution index for surface and spring water near a limestone mining area of the lower Himalayas, Environ.Geol., 41, 183 – 188 (2001)
  12. APHA, ‘Metals by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry’, Clesceri, L.S., Greenberg,A.E., Eaton,A.D.(Eds.), Standard methods for the Examination of water and waste water, 20th edn. American Public (2), 283 (1998)
  13. Eruola A.O, Ufoegbune G.C, Eruola A.O, Awomeso J.A and Abhulimen S.A., Assessment of Cadmium, Lead and Iron in Hand Dug wells of Ilaro and Aiyetoro, Ogun State, South – Western Nigeria, Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 1(9), 1- 5 (2011)
  14. Muthulakshmi L, Ramu A, Kannan N, Seasonal distribution of some heavy metal concentrations in groundwater of Virudhunagar District, Tamilnadu, South India, Electr.J. Environ.Agric.Food.Chem, 11(2), 32–37 (2012)
  15. Hasan Heather M. anganese, the Rosen publishing Group. 31 (2008)
  16. WHO, World health Organization, Guidelines for drinking water, Health criteria and other supporting information, Geneva, 2 (1984)
  17. Nordberg G, Nogawak, Nordberg M, Friberg L, Hand book on toxicology of metals, Nordberg G, Fowler B, Nordberg M, Friberg L, editors NewYork, Acadamic Press, 65 – 78 (2007)
  18. Charles O, Abernathy, Yung – Pin – Liu, David Longfellow, Arsenic: Health effects, Mechanisms of Action, and Research Issues, Environ. Health Protection, 107(7), 593 – 597(1999)
  19. Madsen,H., Poultsen L., and Grandjean.,P., Risk of high copper content in drinking water., Ugeskr.Laegar.152 (25) (1990)
  20. Jennings, G.D.,Sneed, R.E., Clair M.B, St.(1996) North Carolina cooperative Extension Service Publication no: AG – 473 -1. Electronic version 3/(1996)
  21. Khurshid S., Zaheeruddin and Shabeer M.U, Degradation of Water Quality due to Heavy Metal Pollution in Faridabad District, Hariyana, Poll.Res, 16(1), 41 (1997)