9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Palm Kernel Shell by Chemical Activation

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, NIGERIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 3, Issue (7), Pages 54-61, July,18 (2013)

Abstract

This work investigates the effect of change in temperature and time of activation on physicochemical properties of activated carbon prepared from palm kernel shell by chemical activation. The experimental design yielded nine activated carbons which were characterized by standard methods, including SEM examinations and FTIR analysis to study the surface morphology and to analyze the functional groups on the prepared carbons surface respectively. The BET surface area, obtained from nitrogen gas adsorption ranged from 17 to 217 g/m2. The BET surface area of the prepared activated carbons was in the order:A1 > A2 > A3 > C1 > B3 > B1 > B2 > C3 > C2.The nitrogen gas adsorption also showed that samples A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3 and C1 conform to type 1 of IUPAC isotherm classification while samples C2 and C3 conform to type II isotherm. The carbonized sample, (CC), exhibit type III isotherm. Result shows that the best condition for the preparation of activated carbon for adsorption from palm kernel shell using KOH as activating agent be 800C for 45 minutes, taking into cognizance the feasibility of scaling up production.

References

  1. Guzel F. and Uzum I., Determination of the Microscope structure of Activated Carbon by Adsorption of Various Dyestuffs from Aqueous Solution, Turkj. Chem., 26, 367-377 (2002)
  2. Joshi S., Adhikari M., Pokharel B.P. and Pradhananga R.R., Effects of Activating Agents on the Activated Carbons Prepared from Lapsi Seed Stone, Res.J.Chem. Sci.,2(10),80-86 (2012)
  3. Shrestha R.M., Yadav A.P, Pokharel B.P. and Pradhananga R.R., Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Lapsi (Choerospondias axillaris) Seed Stone by Chemical Activation with Phosphoric acid, Res. J. Chem. Sci.,3(3), 34-41 (2013)
  4. Sirichote O., Innajitara W., Chuenchom L., Chunchit D. and Naweekan K., Adsorption of iron (III) ion on activated carbons obtained from bagasse, pericarp of rubber fruit and coconut shell, Songkanakarin J.Sci.Technol., 24(2), 235-242 (2002)
  5. Collins J.C., Zain M.F.H. and Dek F.S., Treatment of landfill leachate in Kayumadang, sabah: textural and physical characterization (Part I), Malaysia Journal of Analytical Science,10(1), 1-6 (2006)
  6. Okieimen F.E., Ojokoh F.I., Okieimen C.O. and Wuana R.A., Preparation and evaluation of activated carbon from rice husk and rubber seed shell, Chemclass Journal,2, 191196 (2004)
  7. Bansal C.R. and Goyal M., Activated carbon adsorption, Taylor and Francis, London 1-3 (2005)
  8. Tsai W.T., Chang C.Y., Wang S.Y., Chang C.F., Chien S.F. and Sun H.F., Preparation of activated carbons from corn cob catalyzed by potassium salts and subsequent gasification with CO, Bioresource Technology, 78, 203-208 (2001)
  9. Losso N.J., Ng C., Marshall E.M. and Rao M.R., Physical and chemical properties of agricultural by-product-based activated carbons and their ability to adsorb geosmin,Bioresource and Technology, 84, 177-185 (2002)
  10. Seo W.C., Kermit W., Yang H. and Marshall E.W., Selected metal adsorption by activated carbon made from peanut shells, Bioresource and Technology, 97, 2266-2270 (2006)
  11. Vitidsant T., Suravattanasakul T. and Damrouglerd S., Production of activated carbon from palm oil shell by pyrolysis and steam activation in a fixed bed reactor, ScienceAsia, 25, 211-222 (1999)
  12. Dina D.J.D, Ntieche A.R, Ndi J.N. and Ketcha M.J., Adsorption of Acetic acid onto Activated Carbons obtained from Maize cobs by Chemical Activation with Zinc chloride (ZnCl), Res.J.Chem.Sci.,2(9), 42-49 (2012)
  13. Ismadji S.H., Sudaryanto Y. and Hartono S.B., High surface area activated carbon prepared from cassava peel by chemical activation, Bioresource and Technology, 97, 734-739 (2006)
  14. Bansode R.R., Losso J.N, Marshall W.E., Rao R.M. and Portier J.R., Adsorption of metal ions by Pecan Shell-based GACs, Bioresource Technology,89, 115119 (2003)
  15. Lima M.I. and Marshall E.W., Granular activated carbon from broiler manure: physical, chemical and adsorptive properties, Bioresource Technology,96, 699-706 (2005)
  16. Rao R.M., Bansode R.R., Losso J.N., Marshall W.E. and Portier R.J., Adsorption of volatile organic compounds by pecan shell and almond shell-based granular activated carbons, Bioresource Technology, 90, 175-184 (2003)
  17. Balakrishnan M. and Satyawali Y., Removal of color from biomethanated distillery spentwash by treatment with activated carbons, Bioresource Technology 98, 2629-2635 (2007)
  18. Vasu E.A. Surface modification of activated carbon for enhancement of Nickel (II) adsorption, E- Journal of Chemistry,5(4), 814 819 (2008)
  19. Li L., Effect of activated carbon surface chemistry and pore structure on the adsorption of trace organic contaminants from aqueous solution, Ph.D Dissertation, North Carolina State University (2002)
  20. Anirudhan T.S. and Krishnan K.A., Removal of Cd2+ from aqueous solution by Steam-activated sulphurised carbon prepared from sugar-cane bagasse pith: Kinetics and equilibrium studies, Water SA,29(2), 147156 (2003)
  21. Karthika C. and Sekar M., Comparison studies of Adsorption Properties on Ni (II) Removal by Strong and Weak acid Cation-exchange Resins, Res. J. Chem. Sci., 3(3), 65-69 (2013)
  22. Shen W., Li Z. and Liu Y., Surface chemical functional groups modification of porous carbon, Recent Patents on Chemical Engineering, 27-40 (2008)
  23. Bansal M., Singh D., Garg V.K. and Pawan R., Use of agricultural waste for the removal of Nickel ions from aqueous solutions: equilibrum and kinetic studies,Proceedings of International Conference on energy and Environment, march 19-21 (2009)
  24. Rao R.M., Ahmedna M. and Marshall W.E., Surface properties of granular activated carbons from agricultural by-products and their effects on raw suger decolorization,Bioresource Technology, 71, 103-112 (2000)
  25. Viswanthan B., Mahalakshmy R. and Indraneel P., Surface functionalities of nitric acid treated carbon A density functional theory based vibrational analysis, Indian Journal of Chemistry,48A, 352-356 (2009)
  26. Al-Mamun M.,, Poostforush M, Mukul S.A. and Subhan M.A., Isotherm and Kinetics of As(III) Uptake from Aqueous Solution by Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Res. J. Chem. Sci. 3(3), 34-41, (2013)