9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Assessment of the Multifaceted Immunomodulatory Potential of the Aqueous Extract of Tinospora Cordifolia

Author Affiliations

  • 1 1Nanobiotech Lab, Dept. of Zoology, K. M. College, University of Delhi, Delhi- 110007, INDIA
  • 2 Dept. of Botany, MKR Government College, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 1, Issue (6), Pages 71-79, September,18 (2011)

Abstract

Immunomodulation relates to potentiation or suppression of the immune responses of the host, depending on the requirement of the situation. Tinospora cordifolia (T.C.), an indispensable medicinal plant, has been used for the treatment of various diseases and has been recommended for improving the immune system. In the current study, we have evaluated the cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory activity of the aqueous extract of T.C. using in vitro and ex vivo models. Results show that there was dose-dependant cytotoxicity in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. ~90% cytotoxicity was observed 72 hours post-treatment with 100΅g/ml of T.C. extract. Interestingly, a low dose of 1΅g/ml also showed ~60% cytotoxicity. Further, the aqueous extract of T.C. exhibited boosting of phagocytic ability of macrophages, remarkable enhancement in nitric oxide production by stimulation of splenocytes and macrophages at 1mg/kg dosage of the extract. Immunomodulatory ability of a compound can be determined by its capability to influence the cytokine production, mitogenicity, stimulation and activation of immune effector cells. The extracts have been investigated for their effect on the cytokine profile (IL-6) by ELISA. Splenocytes cultured in low concentration of T.C, as low as 1.56 g/ml, produced significantly higher levels of IL-6 as compared to un-stimulated cells. The present study reveals the multifaceted immunomodulatory potential of T.C..

References

  1. Amirghofran Z., Azadmehr A., Javidnia K., Haussknechtia elymatica: A plant with immunomodulatory effects, Iran J Immunol., 126-31 (2007)
  2. Kapur P., Pereira B.M., Wuttke W., and Jarry H., Androgenic action of Tinospora cordifolia ethanolic extract in prostate cancer Cell line LNCaP, Phytomedicine, 16(6-7), 679-82 (2008)
  3. Barthwal J., Nair S. and Kakkar P., Heavy metal accumulation in medicinal plants collected from environmentally different sites, Biomed Environ Sci., 21(4), 319-24 (2008)
  4. Rao S.K., Rao P.S., Rao B.N., Preliminary investigation of the radio-sensitizing activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia)in tumor bearing mice , Phytother Res., 22(11), 1482-9 (2008)
  5. Bellini M.F., Angeli J.P.F., Mutuao R., Tererzan A.P., Ribeiro L.R. and Mantovani M.S., Antigentoxicity of Agaricus blazei mushroom organic and aqueous extracts in chromosomal aberration ans cytokinesis block micronucleus assays in CHO-K1 and HTC cells. Toxicol. Vitro, 20, 355-360 (2006)
  6. BN Ames , Dietary carcinogens and anticarcinogens, Oxygen radicals and degenerative diseases, Science 221(4617) 1256-1264 (1983)
  7. Ames B.N., Profet M., and Gold L.S.,Dietary pesticides (99.99% all natural) , PNAS, 87 (19) 7777-7781(1990)
  8. Demma J, Engidawork E. and Hellman B., Potential genotoxicity of plant extracts used in Ethiopian traditional medicine,. J Ethnopharmacol,122(1),136-42 (2009)
  9. Akiyama M., Umeki S., Ksunoki Y., Kyoizumi S., Nakamura N., Mori T., Ishikawa Y., Yamakido M., Ohama K., Kodama T., Endo K. and Cologne J. B., Somatic Cell mutations as a possible predictor of cancer risk, Health Phy., 68, 643-649 (1995)
  10. Godec M.S., Asher D.M., Masters C.L., Kozachuk W.E., Friedland R.P., Gibbs C.J., Jr, Gajdusek D.C., Rapoport S.I., and Schapiro MB. Evidence against the transmissibility of Alzheimer's disease, Neurology, 41(8), 1320 (1991)
  11. De Flora S., Izzotti A., Randerath K., Randerath E., Bartsch H., Nair J., Balansky R., van Schooten F., Degan P., Fronza G., Walsh D., and Lewtas J. DNA adducts and chronic degenerative disease. Pathogenetic relevance and implications in preventive medicine, Mutat Res.366(3),197-238 (1996)
  12. Prescilla V.Jeurink, Cristina Lull Noguera, Huub F.J. Savelkoul and Harry J. Wichers, Immunomodulatory capacity of fungal proteins on the cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, International Immunopharmacology, 8(8) 1124 (2008)
  13. Rao S.K., Rao P.S., and Rao B.N., Preliminary investigation of the radio-sensitizing activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia)in tumor bearing mice, Phytother Res., 22(11), 1482-9 (2008)
  14. Singh S.S., Pandey S.C., Srivastava S., Gupta V.S., Patro B. and Ghosh A.C., chemistry and medicinal properties of tinospora cordifolia (guduchi) Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 35, 83-91(2003)
  15. Chaudhary R., Jahan S., Goyal P.K., Chemopreventive potential of an Indian medicinal plant (Tinospora cordifolia) on skin carcinogenesis in mice, J.Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol.,27(3), (233-43) (2008)
  16. Sudhakaran D.S., Srirekha P., Devasree L.D., Premsingh S., and Michael R.D., Immunostimulatory effect of Tinospora cordifolia Miers leaf extract in Oreochromis mossambicus, Indian J Exp Bio., 44(9)726-32 (2006)
  17. Kamla P. Mishra, Lilly Ganju, Sudipta Chanda, Dev Karan and Ramesh C. Sawhney, Aqueous extract of Rhodiola imbricata Toll-like receptor-4, granzyme-B and Th1 Cytokine in vitro Immunobiology, 214 27-31 (2009)
  18. Stein G.M. and Berg P.A., Modulation of cellular and humoral immune responses during exposure of healthy individuals to an Aqueous mistletoe extract, Eur J Med Res.,3(6) 307-14 (1998)
  19. Van Der Rest B., Rolland N., Boisson A.M., Ferro M., Bligny R., and Douce R.,Identification and characterization of plant glycerol-phosphodiester phosphodiesterase, Biochem. J.,379, 601–607 (2004)
  20. Stich T.M., Determination of protein covalently bound to agarose supports using bicinchoninic acid, Anal Biochem, 191 (2), 343-6 (1990)
  21. Laemmli U. K., Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4, Nature, 277, 680-684 (1970)
  22. Mosmann T., Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays, J.Immunol Methods, 65(1-2), 55-63 (1983)
  23. Subramanian M., Chintalwar G.J., Chattopadhyay S., Antioxidant properties of a Tinospora cordifolia polysaccharide against iron mediated lipid damage and gamma-ray induced protein damage, Redox Rep., 7, 137-143 (2002)
  24. Jahfar M., Glycosyl composition of polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia, Acta Pharm.,53(1), 65-9 (2003)
  25. Patwardhan B., Warude D., Pushpagandhan P., Bhatt N., Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine: a comparative overview, Evid Based Complement Alternat Med,, 465–73 (2005)
  26. Ganesh Chandra Jagetia and Shaival Kamalaksha Rao Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effects of Dichloromethane Extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers ex Hook F & Thoms) on Cultured HeLa Cells, eCAM, 3(2), 267–272 (2006)
  27. Ladel C.H., Blum C., Dreher A., Reifenberg K., Kopf M. and Kaufmann S.H., Lethal tuberculosis in interleukin-6- deficient mutant mice Infect Immun; 65, 4843-9 (1997)
  28. Anguita J., Rincon M., Samanta S., Barthold S.W., Flavell R.A. and Fikrig E., Borrelia burgdorferi-infected, interleukin-6-deficient mice have decreased Th2 responses and increased lyme arthritis, J Infect Dis, 178, 1512–5(1998)
  29. Williams D.M., Grubbs B.G., Darville T., Kelly K. and Rank RG., A role for interleukin-6 in host defense against murine Chlamydia trachomatis infection, Infect Immun,66, 4564–7 (1998)
  30. Khalil A., Tullus K., Bartfai T., Bakhiet M., Jaremko G. and Brauner A, Renal cytokine responses in acute Escherichia coli pyelonephritis in IL-6-deficient mice, Clin Exp Immunol,122, 200–6 (2000)
  31. Suzuki Y., Rani S. and Liesenfeld O., et al., Impaired resistance to the development of toxoplasmic encephalitis in interleukin-6-deficient mice, Infect Immun65, 2339–45 (1997)
  32. Gao W., Pereira M.A., Interleukin-6 is required for parasite specific response and host resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi, Int J Parasitol, 32, 167–70 (2002)
  33. Bienz M., Dai W.J., Welle M., Gottstein B. and Muller N., Interleukin-6- deficient mice are highly susceptible to Giardia lamblia infection but exhibit normal intestinal immunoglobulin A responses against the parasite, Infect Immun, 71,1569–73 (2003)
  34. Cenci E., Mencacci A., Casagrande A., Mosci P., Bistoni F. and Romani L., Impaired antifungal effector activity but not inflammatory cell recruitment in interleukin-6-deficient mice with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, J Infect Dis,184, 610–7 (2001)
  35. Gallucci R.M., Simeonova P.P., Matheson J.M., Kommineni C., Guriel J.L., Sugawara T. and Luster M.I., Impaired cutaneous wound healing in interleukin-6-deficient and immunosuppressed mice, FASEB J, (14), 2525–31 (2000)
  36. Kovalovich K., DeAngelis R.A., Li W., Furth E.E., Ciliberto G., and Taub R., Increased toxin-induced liver injury and fibrosis in interleukin-6- deficient mice. Hepatology, 31,149–59(2000)
  37. Lin Z.Q., Kondo T., Ishida Y., Takayasu T. and Mukaida N., Essential involvement of IL-6 in the skin wound-healing process as evidenced by delayed wound healing in IL-6-deficient mice, J Leukoc Biol., 73, 713–21 (2003)
  38. Swartz K.R., Liu F., Sewell D., Schochet T., Campbell I., Sandor M. and Fabry Z., Interleukin-6 promotes post-traumatic healing in the central nervous system. Brain Res; (896), 86–95 (2001)
  39. Gallucci R.M., Sloan D.K., Heck J.M., Murray A.R. and O’Dell S.J., Interleukin 6 indirectly induces keratinocyte migration, J Invest Dermatol,122, 764–72 (2004)
  40. Xu XJ, Hao J.X., Andell-Jonsson S., Poli V., Bartfai T., Wiesenfeld- Hallin Z., Nociceptive responses in interleukin-6-deficient mice to peripheral inflammation and peripheral nerve section. Cytokine,, 1028–33 (1997)
  41. Molotkov A., Satoh M., and Tohyama C., Tumor growth and food intake in interleukin-6 gene knock-out mice, Cancer Lett,132,187–92 (1998)
  42. Nemeth E., Rivera S., Gabayan V., Keller C., Taudorf S., Pedersen B.K., Ganz T., IL-6 mediates hypoferremia of inflammation by inducing the synthesis of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, J Clin Invest,(113), 1271–6 (2004)