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The Use of Anion Geochemistry in Mapping Groundwater Facies of Yola Area NE Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Yola, NIGERIA
  • 2 Geology Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, NIGERIA

Res.J.chem.sci., Volume 1, Issue (6), Pages 30-41, September,18 (2011)


This study was aimed at employing anion geochemistry in mapping groundwater facies in Yola area of Northeastern Nigeria. The concentration levels of sulphate were analysed using the HACH Spectrophotometer model No DR/2400 whereas those of Cl, COand HCO HCO– were done by titrimetric method. The results of the analysed dissolved anions are recorded as HCO (16.2 to 19.2 mg/l), Cl (0.50 to 0.80 mg/l) and SO(1.60 to 3.55 mg/l) for the rainwater and HCO (73.30 to 273 mg/l), Cl (27.90 to 455.20 mg/l) and SO2- (2 to 29.11 mg/l)for the surface water samples. The shallow groundwater and deep groundwater revealed values of HCO (19.90 to 240 mg/l), Cl (0 to 170.17 mg/l) and SO (0 to 35 mg/l) and HCO (50 to 207 mg/l), Cl (0.004 to 159.40 mg/l) and SO2- (0 to 64.50 mg/l) respectively. The absence of SO2- and relatively high concentration of bicarbonate in some of the samples could be attributed to sulphate reduction. The reaction is believed to take place in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria in the soil zone through which recharge water percolates. The absence of some ions such as COand SO and the varied concentration levels in others such as Cl and HCO also affect the types and numbers of mappable facies in surface water and groundwater systems. Mappable groundwater facies for the different water sources are the bicarbonate-chloride-sulphate facies for the rainwater and the chloride-sulphate-bicarbonate for the surface water and groundwater systems respectively. The results further revealed that the groundwater has a local meteoric origin that evolves towards the composition of sea water. It also suggests that their chemical evolution is associated mainly with progressive dissolution and/or weathering of minerals along the flow paths.


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