6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2020) and Workshop on Intellectual Property Rights. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Investigation of Natural Radioactivity levels in Soil Samples from North Kordofan State, Sudan

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Physics Department, Faculty of Education, University of Blue Nile, SUDAN
  • 2 Deparment of Physics, Taibah University, AL-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, SAUDIA ARABIA
  • 3 Department of physic, Faculty of Sciences, Sudan University of Science and Technology, SUDAN
  • 4 Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Radiometric Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), MONACO
  • 5 Committee on Radiation and Environmental Pollution Protection, Al Imam Mohammad IbnSaud Islamic University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, SAUDIARABIA
  • 6Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, PO Box 3001, Khartoum, SUDAN

Res. J. Physical Sci., Volume 3, Issue (7), Pages 1-7, September,4 (2015)


The aim of this study is to assess of the natural radioactivity level in the soil samples around North Kordofan State. The radioactivity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cshave been determined using γ-ray spectrometry NaI (Tl) detector moreover, the absorbed dose rates and annual effective dose were calculated. The average value of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cswere found to be 22.83, 25.11, 284.31and 0.28Bq.k-1 respectively. The obtained results were found to be lower than UNSCEAR reported data. The absorbed dose rates and annual effective dose were determined and found to be in range of 25 to 29.61 nGy h-1 and 30to 41μSvy-1 respectively. The overall annual effective dose were lower than allowable limit set by ICRP 1μSvy-1.


  1. Mandakini Maharana, Narayani Krishnan and Sengupta D., Spatial distribution of gamma radiation levels in surface soils from Jaduguda uranium mineralization zone, Jharkhand,India, using γ-ray spectrometry and determination of outdoor dose to the population, Journal of Medical Physics, 35(4), 235-241(2010)
  2. Sam A.K., Ahmed M.M.O., El Khangi F.A., ElNigumi Y.O and Holm E., Assessment of terrestrial gamma radiation in Sudan, J.Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 71(2), 141-145 (1997)
  3. Akkaya G., Kahraman A and gurler O., The Investigation of Radionuclide Distributions in soil samples collected from Bursa, Turkey, J. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 152(4), 376-383, (2012)
  4. Meltem Degerlier and Gurse Karahan, Natural radioactivity in various surface water in Adana, J.Turkey Desalination, 261(1-2), 126-130, (2010)
  5. Gbalagba E.O.A and Onoja R.A., Evaluation of natural radioactivity in Soil, Sediment and water samples of Niger Delta (Biseni) flood plain lakes, Nigeria, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 102(7), 667-671 (2011)
  6. Harb S, El kamalA.H., ZahranA.M., Abbady A and Ahamed F.A., Assessment of natural Radioactivity in soil and water samples from Adan governorate South of Yemen Region, International journal of Recent Researcher in physics and chemical Sciences, l1(1), 1-7, (2014)
  7. Mahmoud Ibrahim, Osama Shalabiea and Hassan Diab., Measurement of some radioactive elements in drinking water in Arar city, Saudi Arabia, American journal of life sciences, 210, 24-28, (2014)
  8. Einas H.O., SalihI and A. Khatri Sam., GIS mapping and assessment of terrestrial gamma-radiation in Northern state, J. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 151(3), 1-11 (2012)
  9. Wisal B. Hassan., Habbaniand F.I and Shaded I.A., Investigations of environmental radioactivity in the northern state of Sudan, Sudan Journal of Science, 5(2), (2013)
  10. Babiker A.A., Ahmed M.M.O., Elamin. E and Sam A.K., Measurements of some natural radionuclides in Elgash Area (Sudan),in Proceedings of the Fourth Arab Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Tunis, 14 to 18 November 1998 (Tunis: Arab Atomic Energy), IV, 443-455 (2000)
  11. Sam A. Khand Moawia M. Elmahadi., Assessment of Absorbed Dose Rate in air over plowed arable lends in Sinner state, Central Sudan, J. Radiation Protection Dosimetry,129(4), 473-7, (2007)
  12. Sam A.K. and Sirelkhatim D.A., Comparative study on the evaluation of gamma dose rate above uranium mineralization areas in Western Sudan, International Journal for chemical aspects of nuclear science and technology, 91(7), 409-412, (1999)
  13. Sam A.Kand Awad Al-Geed A. M. M., Radiological evaluation of gold mining activities in ariab (eastern Sudan), J. Radiat .Prot. Dosim., 88(4), 335-340, (2000)
  14. Mukhtar O.M., Environmental study for radionuclides at Miri Lake area. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum Sudan, (1991)
  15. UNSCEAR, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. Report to the General Assembly, with Annexes, English, Publishing and library section, United Nations office, (1993)
  16. UNSCEAR, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation: Sources, effects and risks of ionizing radiation. Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes, New York, United Nations, (2000)
  17. Michalis Tzortzis and Haralabos Tsertos., Gamma-ray Measurements of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Samples from Cyprus Characteristic Geological Rocks, J. Radiation Measurements, 37, 221-229, (2002)
  18. Shenber M.A., Fallout 137 Cs in Soils from North Western Libya, Journal of Radio analytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 250(1), 193-194, (2001)
  19. Gomez E, Garcias F, Casas M and Cerda V, Determination of 137 Cs and 90Sr in Calcareous Soils, Geographical Distribution on the Island of Majorca, J. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 48(5), 699-704, (1997)
  20. Al Hamarneh, WrrikatI.A and Toukan k.,Radioactivity concentrations of40K,134Cs,137Cs,90Sr ,241Am,238Pu and 239+240Pu radionuclides in Jordaniansoil samples, J. Environ. Radioact, 67(1), 53-67, (2003)
  21. Higgy R.H. and Pimpl M, Natural and Man-Made radioactivity in Soils and Plants around the Research reactor of Inshass, Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 49(12), 1709-1712, (1998)
  22. Vukotic P., Borisov G.I., Kuzmic V.V., Antovic N., Dapcevic S., Uvarov V.V and Kulakov V.M, Radioactivity on the Montenegrin Coast, Yugoslavia, Journal of Radio analytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 235(1-2), 151-157, (1998)
  23. Papastefanou C., Manolopoulou M., Stoulos S., Ioannidou A and Gerasopoulos E., Soil - to -planttransfer of137Cs,40K and 7Be, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 45(1), 5965, (1999)
  24. Sam A.K., Sirelkhatim D.A., HassonaR.K., Hassan R.K., Hag Musa E and Ahmed M.M.O., Assessment of Gamma Dose Rate over a Suspected Uranium Mineralization Area of Jebel Mun, Western Sudan, Journal of Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 102(2), 169-174,(2002)