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Childhood pneumonia in the developing countries: Causative agents, diagnosis and management strategies emphasizing the current status

Author Affiliations

  • 1Industrial Microbiological Research Division, BCSIR Laboratories, Chittagong, Bangladesh
  • 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh
  • 3Department of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh
  • 4Quality Assurance Department, Essential Drugs Company Limited (EDCL), Bangladesh
  • 5Department of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh
  • 6Department of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh

Int. Res. J. Medical Sci., Volume 8, Issue (1), Pages 10-20, February,28 (2020)

Abstract

Pneumonia, a lower respiratory infection is regarded as the number one cause of death of children over the world. There were 5.9 million deaths of children aged less than 5 in 2015, more than half of that deaths were occurred by means of infections which create infectious diseases such as pneumonia, tetanus, meningitis, malaria, diarrhea, measles, sepsis and AIDS. Among them pneumonia was responsible for 16% of deaths. Nearly 72% of child deaths caused by pneumonia occur in only 15 countries although they are home to only 55% of the world's population aged less than 5. These are India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Angola, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Chad, Afghanistan, Niger, China, Sudan, Bangladesh, Somalia, and United Republic of Tanzania. The significant risk factors which are responsible for childhood pneumonia are lack of immunization, lack of exclusively breastfeeding, insufficient nutrition, indoor air pollution, low birth weight, and crowding. Along with these causes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and human respiratory syncytial virus are the key causative agents associated with childhood pneumonia. Although pneumonia disease has remarkably decreased due to interventions in health care facilities and improving awareness, but the scenario is still acute in developing countries due to improper diagnosis and inadequate treatment, particularly the children and aged people are more vulnerable. Therefore, it is utmost necessary to conduct extensive research to investigate constrains of pneumonia diagnosis, improvement of treatment facilities including vaccines and antibiotics and adoption of proper management systems so that child survival and burden of pneumonia can be reduced.

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