9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Prevalence of Comorbidities, AIDS related symptoms and Associated Factors among Workers Living With HIV/AIDS Attending ARV Clinics in Health Institutions in Enugu, Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Community Medicine, Enugu State University College of Medicine, Parklane Enugu, NIGERIA
  • 2 Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Nsukka, NIGERIA
  • 3 Department of Community Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, NIGERIA

Int. Res. J. Medical Sci., Volume 2, Issue (12), Pages 9-14, December,28 (2014)

Abstract

Background: As HIV/AIDS has transformed into a chronic medical disease and people living with HIV are living into old age, chronic comorbidities are beginning to appear. The study is aimed at determining the prevalence of comorbidities and associated factors among workers living with HIV/AIDS attending ARV clinics in Health Institutions in Enugu, South East Nigeria. Method: It was a cross sectional descriptive study done in 2014 among 489 HIV positive workers attending ARV clinics in Enugu. Pre-tested self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was the data collection instrument. Result: The age range of the respondents was 22-75 years with a modal age range of 31-40 years (38.7%). Most were females 255 (52.1%), married 291 (59.5%) and government employees 237 (48.5%). The range of working years in present job was 1-45 years. 119 (24.3%) respondents were symptomatic and practically all of them had multiple comorbidities. AIDS defining conditions present among the respondents were fever: 106 (89.1%), persistent diarrhoea: 52 (43.7%) and tuberculosis: 25 (21%). Comorbidities identified were hypertension: 53 (44.5%), arthritis: 44 (37%) and diabetes mellitus: 9 (7.9%). Age above 50 years was the only significant social factor related to co-morbidities.. Major challenges faced were high pill burden: 113 (95%), increased side effects: 98 (82.4%) and cost of medication: 67 (56.3%) and workplace victimization (79.8%). Conclusion: AIDS defining and non-AIDS defining comorbidities were prevalent among our respondents. Those above 50 years were more likely to develop comorbidities. HIV workplace policy should include assisting in management of comorbidities.

References

  1. Cahill S. and Valadez R., Growing old with HIV/AIDS: New Public Health Challenges, Am J Public Health, 3(3),e7-e15 (2013)
  2. Lyons M., Pitts M., Grierson J., Thorpe R. and Power J., Ageing with HIV: health and psychosocial well-being of older gay men, AIDS Care,22(10), 1236-44 (2010)
  3. Samji H., Cescon A., Hogg R.S., Modur S.P., Althoff K.N. and Buchacz K et al., Closing the gap: Increases in life expectancy among treated HIV- positive individuals in the United States and Canada, PLoS One,8(13), e81355 (2013)
  4. Stewart A., Carusone S.C., To K., Schaefer-McDaniel N., Halman M. abd Grimes R., Causes of Death in HIV patients and the evolution of an AIDS Hospice: 19882008, AIDS Res Treat, doi: 10.1155/2012/390406, (2012)
  5. Onya O.N. and Stanley P.C., Prevalence, presentation and co-morbidity pattern associated with depression among geriatric patients attending GOPD of UPTH, Int. Res. J. Medical Sci.,1(3), 17-24 (2013)
  6. Valderas J. M., Starfield B., Sibbald B., Salisbury C. and Roland M., Defining Comorbidities: implications for understanding health and health services, Ann Fam Med,7(4), 357-363 (2009)
  7. Justice A., Sullivan L. and Fiellin D., HIV/AIDS, Comorbidity: Can we make a difference? Alcohol Res and Health,33(3), 258-266 (2010)
  8. Negin J., Martiniuk A., Cumming R.G., Naidoo N., Phaswana-Mafuya N., Madurai L., Williams S. and Kowal P., Prevalence of HIV and chronic comorbidities among older adults, AIDS,26, S55-S63 (2012)
  9. Haregu T.N., Oldenburg B., Sestwe G., Elliott J. and Nanayakkara V., Epidemiology of comorbidity of HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases in developing countries: a systemic review, J Global Health Care systems.2(1). (2012) Available at: http://jghcs.info/index.php/j/article/view/142. Date accessed, 08 (2014)
  10. Denue B.A., Gashau W., Ekong E. and Ngoshe R.M., Prevalence of non HIV related co-morbidity in HIV patients on Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART): a retrospective study, Ann of Bio Res,3(7),3333-9 (2012)
  11. de Freitas J.G., Galvao M.T., Araujo M.F., Costa E. and de Lima I.C., Coping experiences in the work environment of men living with HIV/AIDS, Rev Esc Enferm USP,46(3), 720-6 (2012)
  12. Bashir S., HIV/AIDS stigma at the workplace: Exploratory findings from Pakistan, Sahara J of Social aspects of HIV/AIDS.8(3), 156-161 (2011)
  13. Priyanka T.S. and Shyam S.D., A cross-sectional study of attitude of Attendants accompanying HIV positive persons at integrated counseling and testing centre of a tertiary care hospital in Punjab, India, Int, Res. J. Medical Sci.,2(1), 11-14 (2014)
  14. Das H.K., Goswami A., Sonowal R. and Das M.K., Assessment of HIV/AIDS sero-positivity rate in the state of Nagaland, North-East India, Int. Res. J. Medical Sci., 2(3), 17-23 (2014)
  15. Ndu A.C., Arinze-Onyia S.U., Aguwa E.N. and Obi I.E., Prevalence of depression and role support groups in its management: a study of adult HIV/AIDS patients attending HIV/AIDS clinic in a tertiary health facility in South-eastern Nigeria, J Pub Health and Epidemiol,3(4),182-6 (2011)
  16. Laah J.G. and Ayiwulu E., Socio-Demographic characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in Nasarawa Eggon, Asian J Med Sci,2(3), 114-120 (2010)
  17. Anyebe E.A., Hellandendu J.M. and Gyong J.E., Sociodemographic profile of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Idoma land, Benue Sttate, North-central Nigeria: Implications for HIV/AIDS control, Intel J Soc and Anthrop, 5(5), 153-162 (2013)
  18. Iliyasu Z., Arotiba J.T. and Babashan M., Socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors among HIV/AIDS patients in Kano, Northern Nigeria, Niger J Med,13(3), 267-271 (2004)
  19. Ettner S.L. and Grzywacz J.G., Workers’ perceptions of how jobs affect health: a social ecological perspective, J Occup Health Psych.,6(2), 101-113 (2001)
  20. Mohammad A., Amin A., Amid D.M., Mojtaba B. and Faegheh P., The relation between personality type, locus of control, occupational satisfaction and occupational exhaustion and determining the effectiveness of stress inoculation training (SIT) on reducing it among staffers of Saipa Company, Res. J. Recent Sci., 2(12), 6-11 (2013)
  21. Nabizadeh T., Gharib T.Z., Dorbanai F. and YaghoobiJami A., Investigating the effects of job experience, satisfaction, and motivation on Organizational commitment Case study: (the Nurses of Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran), Res. J. Recent Sci., 1(7), 59-67 (2012)
  22. Gazzola L., Tincati C. and Monforte A. dA., Noninfectious HIV-related comorbidities and HAART Toxicities: choosing alternative antiretroviral strategies, HIV Ther,4(5), 553-65 (2010)
  23. Young F., Critchley J.A., Johnstone L.K. and Unwin N.C., A review of co-morbidity between infectious and chronic disease in sub Saharan Africa: TB and Diabetes mellitus, HIV and metabolic syndrome and impact on globalization, Globalization and Health,5, 9 (2009) doi: 10.1186/1744-8603-5-9
  24. Friis-Moller N., Weber R., Reiss P., Thiebaut R., Kirk O. and Monforte A. dA., Cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV patients- association with antiretroviral therapy, Results from DAD study, AIDS,17(8), 1179-93 (2003)
  25. Cazanave C., Dupen M., Lavignolle-Aurillac V., Barthe N., Lawson-Ayayi S. and Mehsen N. et al., Reduced bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients: prevalence and associated factors, AIDS,22(3), 395-402 (2008)
  26. McComsey G.A., Tebas P., Shane L., Yin M.T., Overton E.T. and Huang J.S. et al., Bone disease in HIV infection: a practical review and recommendations for HIV care providers, Clin Infect Dis,51(8), 937-46 (2010)
  27. Mocroft A., Kirk O., Gatell J., Reiss P., Gargalianos P. and Zilmer K. et al., Chronic renal failure among HIV-1-infected patients, AIDS,21(9), 1119-27, (2007)
  28. Porter L., Hao L., Bishai D., Serwadda D., Wawer M.J. and Lutalo T. et al., HIV status and union dissolution in sub-saharan Africa: The case of Rakai, Uganda, Demography,41(3), 466-82 (2004)
  29. Monroe A.K., Rowe T.L., Moore R.D. and Chander G., Medication adherence in HIV-positive patients with diabetes or hypertension: a focus group study, BMC Health Services Res,13, 488 (2013) doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-13-488
  30. Warren-Jeanplere L., Dillaway H., Hamilton P., Young M., Goparaju L., Taking it one day at a time: African American women aging with HIV and co-morbidities, AIDS Patient Care STDS, 28 (7), 372-80 (2014)