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Isolation and characterization of selected biopolymers from Maize Cobs and Crab Shells obtained in Niger State, Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria and Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Kogi State University Anyigba, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
  • 3Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
  • 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria
  • 5Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
  • 6Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Kogi State University Anyigba, Nigeria

Res. J. Material Sci., Volume 8, Issue (1), Pages 19-23, February,16 (2020)

Abstract

Cellulose, chitin and chitosan are widely spread biopolymers in nature. These biopolymers have economic significance due to their wide applications in industries and biomedicine. They can be locally sourced in abundance from agricultural wastes. In this study, cellulose and chitin as biopolymers were isolated from maize cobs and crab shells respectively via simple techniques. The isolated chitin was processed into the more valuable material (chitosan) by deacetylation process. The three isolated biopolymers were characterized by using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD analysis indicated the crystalline nature of the chitin and chitosan and also showed that the isolated cellulose is amorphous in nature. The FTIR spectra displayed the peaks corresponding to the characteristic functional groups (O-H, C-H and C=O) common to the prepared biopolymers. It can be concluded that maize cobs and crab shells can be chief sources of cellulose and chitins and this can assist in reducing the environmental pollutions caused by the indiscriminate discarding of these local waste materials.

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