6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2020) will be Postponed to 8th and 9th May 2021 Due to COVID-19. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

DC Conductivity Studies of PPy/ZnO Composites

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, Karnataka – 585106, INDIA

Res. J. Material Sci., Volume 3, Issue (5), Pages 1-5, October,16 (2015)

Abstract

Samples of conducting polypyrrole (PPy) and Polypyrrole/ZnO composites were synthesized through chemical oxidative polymerization method using an anhydrous ferric chloride (Fecl3) as an oxidizing agent. DC conductivity as a function of temperature as has been measured and data analyzed using Small polaron hopping and Variable range hopping theories. Activation energies for conduction and density of levels at Fermi energy were determined. Conductivity was found to be in the order of 10-3 (Ω-1m-1) and exhibited semiconducting behavior with respect to temperature. Activation energy was found to be in the order of a meV. It is for the first time PPy-ZnO nanocomposites were investigated for temperature variation of conductivity and conduction mechanisms probed thoroughly.

References

  1. Gade V.K., Shirale D.J., Gaikwad P.D., Kakde K.P., Savale P.A., Kharat H.J., Pawar B.H., Shirsat M.D., Synthesis and characterization of Ppy-PVS, P(NMP)-PVS and their co-polymer Ppy-P(NMP)-PVS films by galvanostatic method, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2, 270–277 (2007)
  2. Kassim A., Mahmud H.N.M.E., Yee L.M., Hanipah N., Pac. J. Sci. Technol., 7 (2) 105 (2008)
  3. Zengin H. and Erkan B., Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline/silicon dioxide composites and preparation of conductive films, Polym. Adv. Technol., 21, 216–223 (2010)
  4. Aisha Batool, Farah Kanwal, Muhammad Imran, Tahir Jamil and Saadat Anwar Siddiqi, Synthesis of polypyrrole/zinc oxide composites and study of their structural, thermal and electrical properties, Synthetic Metals, 161, 2753– 2758 (2012)
  5. Huiling Tai, Yadong Jiang, Guang Zhong Xie, Jun Shung Yu and Xuan Chen, Fabrication and gas sensitivity of polyaniline–titanium dioxide nanocomposite thin film, Sensors and Actuators B25, 644-650 (2007)
  6. Nguyen Thi Le H., Garcia B., Deslouis C. and Le Xuan Q., Corrosion protection and conducting polymers: polypyrrole films on iron, Electrochimical Acta, 46, 4259-4272 (2001)
  7. Seandeera G.K.R., Kitamura T., Wada Y. and Yanagida S., Deposition of polyaniline via molecular self-assembly on TiO2 and its uses as a sensitiser in solid-state solar cells, Jour. of Photochem. and Photobiol. A: Chem., 164, 61-66 (2004)
  8. Au Ji Ru Son, Hoosung Lee and Bongjin Moon, Morphology and photoluminescence of colloidal polypyrrole nanoparticles, Synth. Met., 157, 597-602 (2007)
  9. Ashokan S., Ponnuswamy V. and Jayamurugan P., Morphological, structural, functional effect and Comparative study of PPy with PPy/TiO2, and PPy/ZnO composite films by Nebulizer Spray coating Technique, Journal of Applied Physics and Engineering, 1(1), 1–9 (2015)
  10. Vivekchand S.R.C., Kam K.C., Gundiah G., Govindaraj A., Cheetham A.K. and Rao C.N.R., Electrical properties of inorganic nanowire–polymer composites, J. Mater. Chem., 15, 4922–4927(2005)
  11. Chougule M.A., Sen S., Patil V.B., Facile and Efficient Route for Preparation of Polypyrrole-ZnO Nanocomposites: Microstructural, Optical and Charge Transport Properties, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 125, E541–E547 (2012)
  12. Dalas E., Mougoyannis P. and Sakkopoulos S., Effect Of Zno Concentration On The Structure And Charge Transport In Conductive Polypyrrole/Zno X% W/W Composites With X = 10, 20, 30 And 40, Rom. Journ. Phys., 58, 3–4, 354–364, Bucharest, (2013)
  13. Pallavi Mavinakuli, Suying Wei, Qiang Wang, Amar B. Karki, Sanjay Dhage, Zhe Wang, David P. Young, and Zhanhu Guo, Polypyrrole/Silicon Carbide Nanocomposites with Tunable Electrical Conductivity, J. Phys. Chem. C, 114, 3874-3882 (2010)
  14. Suri K., Annapoorni S., Tandon R.P., Rath C. and Aggrawal V.K., Thermal transition behaviour of iron oxide–polypyrrole nanocomposites, Current Applied Physics, 3, 2, 209-213 (2003)
  15. Sato K., Yamara M., Hagiwara T.H., Murata K. and Tokumoto M., Study on the electrical conduction mechanism of polypyrrole films, Synth. Met., 40, 35-48 (1991)
  16. Spatz J.P., Lorentz B., Weishaupt K., Hochhima H.D., Menon V., Parthasarathi R., Martin C.R., Bechtold J. and Her P.H., Observation of crossover from three- to two-dimensional variable-range hopping in template-synthesized polypyrrole and polyaniline, Phys.Rev., B 50, 14888-14892 (1994)
  17. Maddison D.S. and Answorth J., Electrical Conductivity and Thermoelectric Power Of Polypyrrole With Different Doping Levels, Synth. Met., 26, 99-108 (1988)
  18. Syed Abthagir P. and Saraswati R., Thermal stability of polypyrrole prepared from a ternary eutectic melt, J. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 92, 21-26 (2005)
  19. Murugendrappa M.V. and Ambika Prasad M.V.N., Chemical Synthesis, Characterization, and Direct-Current Conductivity Studies of Polypyrrole/γ-Fe2O3 Composites, J. App. Poly. Sci., 103, 2797 (2007)
  20. Pawar S.G., Patil S.L., Chougule M.A., Raut B.T., Shashwati Sen and Patil V.B., Camphor sulfonic acid doped polyaniline–titanium dioxide nanocomposite: synthesis, structural, morphological, and electrical properties, International Journal of Polymeric Materials, 60, 979–987, (2011)
  21. Maminya YP., Davydenko VV., Pissis P. and Lebedev EV., Electrical and thermal conductivity of polymers filled with metal powders, Eur Polym J, 38, 1887-1897 (2002)
  22. Huang JC, Carbon black filled conducting polymers and polymer blends, Adv Polym Technol, 21(4), 299–313 (2002)
  23. Asif Ali Khan, Mohd. Khalid, Synthesis of Nano-Sized ZnO and Polyaniline-Zinc Oxide Composite: Characterization, Stability in Terms of DC Electrical Conductivity Retention and Application in Ammonia Vapor Detection, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 117, 1601–1607 (2010)
  24. Chougule M.A., Khuspe G.D., Shashwati Sen and Patil V.B., Polypyrrole–ZnO nanohybrids: effect of CSA doping on structure, morphology and optoelectronic properties, Appl. Nanosci., 3, 423–429 (2013)
  25. Shama Islam, Lakshmi G. B. V. S., Azher M. Siddiqui, Husain M. and Zulfequar M., Synthesis, Electrical Conductivity, and Dielectric Behavior of Polyaniline/V2O5 Composites, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, International Journal of Polymer Science, 2013, (2013)
  26. Mott N.F., Conduction in glasses containing transition metal ions, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 1(1), 1-17 (1968)
  27. Praveenkumar K., Sankarappa T., Ashwajeet J.S., Ramanna R., Sujatha T., Jyoti Kattimani and Chandraprabha G., Conduction Mechanisms in Polypyrrole-Copper Nanocomposites, Journal Of Nano- and Electronic Physics, 7, 2, 02043 (2015)
  28. Praveenkumar K., Sankarappa T., Jyoti Kattimani, Chandraprabha G, Ashwajeet J.S., Ramanna R. and Sujata T., Electrical Conductivity in Polypyrrole Nano Particles, ISJSET, 17, 7, 772 (2014)
  29. Rawal I. and Kaur A., Effect of anion surfactant concentration on the variable hopping conduction in polypyrrole nanoparticles, J. Appl. Phys., 115, 043717-1–6 (2014)
  30. Jyoti K., Sankarappa T., Ashwajeet J.S. and Ramanna R., Conductivity Studies on Polythiophene-CoO Nano-Composites, Journal of Advanced Chemical Sciences, 1(4) 139–141 (2015)
  31. Kiani G., Sheikhloie H. and Rostami A., Highly enhanced electrical conductivity and thermalstability of Polythiophene/single-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite, Iran. Poly. Jour., 20(8), 623-632 (2011)
  32. Othman N., Talib Z.A., Kassim A., Shaari A.H. and Liew J.Y.C., Electrical properties of polypyrrole conducting polymer at various dopant concentrations, J. Fundamental Sci., 5, 29-33 (2009)
  33. Jyoti K., Sankarappa T., Praveenkumar K., Ashwajeet J.S., Ramanna R., Chandraprabha G.B and T. Sujatha, Structure and Temperature Dependence of Electrical Conductivity in Polythiophene Nanoparticles, Int. Journal of Advanced Research in Physical Science (IJARPS), 1(7), 17-21, (2014)