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Res. J. Language and Literature Sci., Volume 2, Issue (8), Pages 1-17, August (2015)


Research Paper

1. Representation of Islam in Post 9/11 English Novels
Anushiravani Alireza and Khademi, Abolfazl, Res. J. Language and Literature Sci., 2(8),1-13(2015)

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Abstract
Present research aims to study the representation of Islam in post 9/11 English novels. To this aim 3 post 9/11 English novels were divided into eight categories based on the angles from which they had looked at 9/11 event, and one novel of each category, a better received one, was chosen through cluster sampling to be studied. As the study went on two categories were deleted for not being related to the subject. Thus six novels by Updike, DeLillo, Ferrigno, see, Halaby, and Kalfus were studied. Using representation theory and Foucault's discursive formation approach, the effort was taken to identify the latent and manifest discourses shaping and shaped by these texts as well as the characteristics attributed to Islam and Muslims. The results showed that the discourse shaping the texts (war against terrorism) and discourses shaped by the texts (Muslims are all the same, Muslims are violent and promote violence, and Zionists are innocent) are in line with the power discourse in four of the six novels; whereas, in the remaining two novels, the approach taken toward power discourse is quite subversive. This of course signifies the presence of a multiple voice in the American society although the weaker voice is not heard as well as the loud voice.
2. Constructing Norms for Selected Kabaddi Skills for Panjab University Kabaddi Players
Dalbir Singh, Res. J. Language and Literature Sci., 2(8),14-17(2015)

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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to construct norms for selected kabaddi skills for Panjab university kabaddi players. For the purpose of the present study, Sixty (N=60), Male University Level Kabaddi Players between the age group of 18-25 years were selected. The subjects were purposively assigned: Group-A: Panjab University, Chandigarh (n1=60). Furthermore, Sixty (N=60), Male University Level Kabaddi Players includes subjects those who participated in the Inter-College Competitions for the academic year 2013-2014 and are affiliated to Panjab University, Chandigarh (n1=60). The data, which was collected by administering tests, was statistically treated to develop for all the test items. In order to construct the norms, Percentile Scale was used. Further, the scores were classified into five grades i.e. very good, good, average, poor and very poor. To conclude, it is evident that in Hand Touch, the scores below 15.853 are considered very poor, from about 15.853-14.343 is considered poor, 14.343-11.323 is considered average, 11.323-9.813 is considered good and the scores above 9.813 are considered very good scores for Kabaddi Players of Panjab University, Chandigarh. To conclude, it is evident that in Toe Touch, the scores below 13.48 are considered very poor, from about 13.48-12.14 is considered poor, 12.14-9.46 is considered average, 9.46-8.12 is considered good and the scores above 8.12 are considered very good scores for Kabaddi Players of Panjab University, Chandigarh. To conclude, it is evident that in Back Kick, the scores below 8.78 are considered very poor, from about 8.78-10.69 is considered poor, 10.69-14.51 is considered average, 14.51-16.42 is considered good and the scores above 16.42 are considered very good scores for Kabaddi Players of Panjab University, Chandigarh.