6th International Virtual Congress (IVC-2019) And Workshop.  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Minglish: Unmarked code switching in urban Maharashtra, India

Author Affiliations

  • 1The George Washington University, 2110 G. St. NW, Washington, DC 20052 USA

Res. J. Language and Literature Sci., Volume 5, Issue (4), Pages 13-19, October,19 (2018)


The systematic use of English words among Marathi words in speaking and writing in the western Indian state of Maharashtra in urban environments should be considered a specific phenomenon which challenges contemporary definitions in linguistics and linguistic anthropology of code switching. Like Hinglish, which is the mix of Hindi and English, Minglish, or a mix of Marathi and English, has no switch between codes. Instead, Minglish is one seamless language, albeit a different language than Marathi or English and this mix is both widely accepted and distinct from a marked use of English, reflecting Michael Meewis and Jan Blommaert's work on monolectal code switched languages in Belgium (1998). The use of Minglish as a monolectal code switched language, is distinct from a marked use of English, which is used to index aspects of an identity, such as levels of sophistication and class status. This particular unmarked mix of English and Marathi provides a window through language to see a globally integrated community that is nevertheless locally specific. The language speakers use is fluid and inextricably linked to global flows unbound to a single language that reach outside of changing contexts of what it means to be Maharashtrian and Indian.


  1. Sadana Rashmi (2012)., How we live multilingually and what this says about our language and literature Managing Hindi., http://www.caravanmagazine.in/reviews-essays/managing-hindi. May 8, 2012.
  2. Gumperz John (1971)., Hindi-Punjabi Code-Switching in Delhi (1964)., Language in Social Groups. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  3. Heller Monica (1988)., Codeswitching: Anthropological and Sociolinguistic Perspectives., Mouton de Gruyter: Walter de Gruyter & Co.
  4. Jain Shreya (2013)., Code Switching in Indian Culture., Paper presented at the International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Manchester, UK, August 5-10th.
  5. Meeuwis Michael and Jan Blommaert (1998)., A Monolectal view of Code-Switching: Layered code-switching among Zairians in Belgium., In Code-Switching in Conversation: Language, Interaction, and Identity. Peter Auer, ed. London: Routledge, 76-98.
  6. Evans Stephen (2002)., Macaulay's Minute Revisited: Colonial Language Policy in Nineteenth-century India., Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 23(4), 260-281.
  7. Kochhar R.K. (2010)., English Education in India: Hindu Anamnesis versus Muslim Torpor., Pakistaniaat: A Journal of Pakistan Studies, 2(1), 62-97.
  8. Jakobson Roman (1972)., Verbal Communication., Scientific American, 227, 72-81.
  9. Auer Peter (1998)., Code-Switching in Conversation: Language, Interaction, and Identity., London: Routledge.
  10. Garner-Chloros Penelope (2009)., Code-switching., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  11. Fernandes Leela (2006)., India, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
  12. Benei Veronique (2008)., Schooling Passions: Nation, History, and Language in Contemporary Western India., Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
  13. Haugen Einar (1950)., The Analysis of Linguistic Borrowing., Language, 26(2), 210-231.
  14. Myers-Scotton Carol (1993)., Social Motivations for Code switching: Evidence from Africa., Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  15. Singh Rajendra (1983)., We, They, and Us: A Note on Code-Switching and Stratification in North India., In Language in Society, 12(1), 71-73.
  16. Woolard Kathryn (2004)., Codeswitching., A Companion to Linguistic Anthropology, Alessandro Duranti, ed. Chapter 4. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  17. P. Engblom, Personal Communication, November 25, (2013)., undefined, undefined
  18. Kulkarni G., Interview, August 9, (2013)., undefined, undefined
  19. Kulkarni S., Interview, August 9, (2013)., undefined, undefined
  20. Shintre M., Interview, August 8, (2013)., undefined, undefined
  21. Mahajan S., Interview, August 5, (2013)., undefined, undefined
  22. Inamdar S., Interview, August 8, (2013)., undefined, undefined
  23. Raut S., Interview, July 27, (2013)., undefined, undefined