Life in Ladakh (India): the Changpas of Changthang
- 1Department of Environmental Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
- 2Department of Economics, Indraprastha College for Women, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
- 3Department of Environmental Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 9, Issue (2), Pages 57-63, April,14 (2020)
The Changpas are the nomadic pastoral communities living in the Changthang plains of Ladakh. With limited agriculture, their lives rely majorly on livestock farming. The Pashmina goats are prime among these and unique to the region. The world-famous Pashmina wool and fabric are produced in this region. While Pashmina is an economic occupation, it is also the name of a cultural identity of the region. However, the socio-economic conditions in these plains do not allow a very high quality of life. The development activities in Ladakh have been centered around Leh and Kargil only. The plains in the other parts of Ladakh have remained mostly underdeveloped. Harsh climatic conditions, poor quality of life and uncertainties associated with pastoralism are some of the major factors that have resulted in large scale migration among the young generation of the Changpas. This has put an old sustainable socio-economic and ecological system under threat. Major development initiatives are required along with scientific methods of saving the grazing land and planning sustainable agriculture in the region. This paper studies the lives of the Pashmina growing Changpa community of the Changthang plains in order to understand the nature and causes of their socio-economic backwardness, pattern of pastoralism and trends of migration that have affected the sustainability of life in the region.
- Kunzang Dolma., Map of Ladakh., https://www.grandadventuresindia.com/Ladakh_Zanaskar/ladakh_zanskar.htm. n.d. web 31 March 2017.
- Goldstein, M. C. (1981)., High-altitude tibetan populations in the remote Himalaya: social transformation and its demographic, economic, and ecological consequences., Mountain Research and Development, 5-18.
- Pelliciardi, V. (2010)., Tourism traffic volumes in Leh district: an overview., Ladakh Studies, 26, 14-23.
- Bhasin, V. (1999)., Tribals of Ladakh: Ecology, Human Settlements, and Health., Kamla Raj Enterprises.
- Kunzang Dolma., District profile of Leh., https://leh.gov.in,n.d. web. 31 March 2017.
- Goodall, S. K. (2004)., Rural-to-urban migration and urbanization in Leh, Ladakh., Mountain research and development, 24(3), 220-227.
- Khazanov, A. M. (1994)., Nomads and the Outside World., No. 2nd Edition. University of Wisconsin Press.
- Scoones, I. (1994)., Living with uncertainty: new directions in pastoral development in Africa., IT Publications, London.
- Miller, D. (1998)., Nomads of the Tibetan Plateau Rangelands in Western China\" Part One: Pastoral History., Rangelands 20: 24-Thangspa, T. L. (2000) \"Ladakh Book of Records: A General Knowledge Book of Ladakh\", Lay Publication. Jayyed Press, Ballimaran, Delhi.
- Hagalia, W. (2004)., Changing rangeland use by the nomads of Samad in the highlands of eastern Ladakh, India., Masters dissertation, Agricultural University of Norway.
- Goldstein, M. & Beal, C. (1990)., Nomads of Western Tibet., University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, USA.
- Rizvi, J. (1996)., Ladakh: Crossroads of High Asia. 1st edition 1983., New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.
- Rizvi, J. (2001)., Trans-Himalayan caravans: Merchant princes and peasant traders in Ladakh., New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.
- Dolkar, T., & AZIM, H. (2017)., Socio-Cultural Environment of Changpa Nomads of Changthang Region (Ladakh)., International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research (IJASR), 7(4), 491-496.
- Thangspa, T. L. (2000)., Ladakh Book of Records: A General Knowledge Book of Ladakh., Lay Publication. Jayyed Press, Ballimaran, Delhi.
- Dame, J. (2018)., Food Security and Translocal Livelihoods in High Mountains: Evidence from Ladakh, India., Mountain Research and Development, 38(4), 310-323.
- Mazumder, N.K., Mazumder, A., (1983)., Breed characteristics of some Indian pashmina goats., Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 53, 779-782.
- Bhasin, V. (2012)., Life on an Edge among the Changpas of Changthang, Ladakh., Journal of Biodiversity, 3(2), 85-129.
- Koul, G. L., Biswas, J. C., & Bhat, P. N. (1990)., The Cheghu (pashmina) goat of the Himalayas., Small Ruminant Research, 3(4), 307-316.
- Kunzang Dolma (2017). The District Statistics and Evaluation Agency Leh. Economic Review of Leh District., http://leh.gov.in/. Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC), n.d. web. 31 March 2017., undefined
- Wani, S. A., &Wani, M. H. (2007)., Economics of Pashmina Production under pastoralist nomadic system of management in cold arid region of Jammu and Kashmir., World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(6), 788-795.
- Namgail, T., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Mishra, C., & Bagchi, S. (2007)., Pastoral nomads of the Indian Changthang: Production system, landuse and socioeconomic changes., Human Ecology, 35(4), 497.
- Dolkar, T., Azim, H., & Sheikh, F. D., (2017)., Culture and Cultural Relevance of Changpa Nomads., IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Literature, 5(11), 85-90.
- Dollfus, P. (2013)., Transformation processes in nomadic pastoralism in Ladakh., Himalaya, the Journal of the Association for Nepal and Himalayan Studies, 32(1), 15.
- Michaud, J. (1996)., A historical account of modern social change in Ladakh (Indian Kashmir) with special attention paid to tourism., International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 37(3), 286-300.
- Namgail, T., Van Wieren, S. E., & Prins, H. H. (2010)., Pashmina production and socio‐economic changes in the Indian Changthang: Implications for natural resource management., In Natural Resources Forum, 34(3), pp. 222-230. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.