6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2020) will be Postponed to 8th and 9th May 2021 Due to COVID-19. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Sunni Militants in Iran: Activities, Ideological Sources and Political Strategies

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Hoshang Noraiee Taught International Political Economy-University of Westminster, London, UNITED KINGDOM

Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 4, Issue (3), Pages 79-87, March,14 (2015)

Abstract

In this article the activities, ideological and strategic characters of militant Sunni groups in Southeast Iran will be investigated. It will be argued that their ability to survive and their capacity for popularity and action, to a large extent, is associated with strong sense of alienation among the Sunnis in the area, as well as their ethnic and religious networks which exist across borders. These factors have strengthened their positions in the wake of turbulent conditions in adjacent countries, particularly in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The militant groups in the area are not homogeneous and vary from quietists and ethnic-religious nationalists to sectarian and global-oriented Jihadists. Nearly all these militants in the marginal corner of Southeast Iran have adopted a strong anti-Shia approach, which was influenced politically and ideologically by radical Deobandis as well as Wahabbis and Salafists. Their strategies have shifted overtime but mostly focused on near enemy. With serious threats imposed by ISIS along western borders, the Shia regime in Iran has become more aware of the dimension of problems in Southeast Iran, particularly the area of Sistan and Baluchistan

References

  1. Younesi A., Doulat Natawanest be aqqalyathay-e qawmi wa mazhabi ostandari wa vazarat bedahad [The Government could not offer Ministerial and Provincial Governorship to the Religious and Ethnic Minorities]. BBC Persia. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk /persian/iran/2013/12/ 131204_l39_younesi_minorities_appointments.shtml. Accessed 13 August 2014 (2013)
  2. Noraiee H., Is ISIS a threat to the Islamic Republic of Iran. Manuscript in preparation, (2014)
  3. Hegghammer T., Jihadi-Salafi or revolutionaries? On religion and politics in the study of militant Islamism. In R. Meijer (Ed.), Global Salafism; Islam's new religious movement 244-266. London: Hurst and Company, (2009)
  4. Sadr M., Hamkary-e Iran wa Amerika Alih-e Daesh Momken ast [Cooperation between Iran and the US on ISIS is possible]. BBC Persia. Available from http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2014/08/140811_l12_iran_isis_iran_us_cooperation_iraq.shtml. Accessed 13 August 2014 (2014)
  5. International Crisis Group. Pakistan: The militant jihadi challenge(Asia Report N164), Available from http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-asia/ pakistan/164_pakistan___the_militant_jihadi_challenge.pdf. Accessed 12 January 2013 (2009)
  6. Roy O., Has Islamism a future in Afghanistan. In W. Maley (Ed.) W. Maley (Ed.). L Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban, 199-211, London: Hurst and Company, (2001)
  7. Rashid A., Taliban: The story of the Afghan warlords. London: Pan Books, (2001)
  8. Noraiee H., Change and continuity: Power and religion in Iranian Baluchistan. In C. Jahani, A. Korn, and P. Titus (Eds.), The Baloch and Others: Linguistic, Historical and Socio-political perspectives on pluralism in Baluchistan, Weisbaden, Germany: Reichert Verlag, (2008)
  9. Noraiee H., Globalisation and Islam: Modernity, diversity and identity. In F. Morady and I. Siriner (Eds.), Globalisation religion and development. Istanbul: IJOPEC Publication, (2010)
  10. Noraiee H.,Radical Islam and ethnic nationalism: Jondollahís ideological roots and political functions in Southeast Iran-Baluchistan. Manuscript in preparation, (2011)
  11. Noraiee H.,Proseh-e Tadavom and Taghier dar Mazhab dar Baluchistan-e Iran dar Qarn-e Akhir: Az Unnathay-e mohalli wa sufianeh ta Deobandism-e radical wa syasi [Process of change and continuity in religion in Iranian Baluchistan during the last century: From local traditions and Sufism to radical and political Deobandism]. Available from: http://www.taptan.com/?page_id=82. Accessed 10 November 2014 (2011)
  12. Azan-e Mujahid, How lucky are the unique people, Azan-e Mujahid, 16, 20-21, (1989)
  13. Rigi A., Jundollah: hwyatt-e nashonakhteh Jundollah: Unknown identity, Available from: http://www. ostomaan.org /articles/%D8%AE%D8%A8%D8%B1% D9%87%D8%A7-%D9%88-%D9%86%D8%B8%D8% B1%D9%87%D8 %A7/7754. Accessed 2 October 2012 (2010)
  14. Pedia View. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. In PediaView. Available from: https://pediaview.com/openpedia/ Khalid_Sheikh_Mohammed. Accessed May 13 2012 (2012)
  15. Washington Post. Abdul Basit Balochi (Mahmoud Kareem), alias Ramzi Ahmed Yousef. Washington Post. Available from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/12/AR2007091201375.html. Accessed 31 December 2010 (2007)
  16. GlobalSecurity.org. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. Available from: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/ksm.htm. Accessed May 10 2012 (2011)
  17. BBC, Pakistan seizes al-Qaeda gang, BBC Persia. Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/ south_asia/3803321.stm, Accessed 15 December 2014 (2004)
  18. Safizadeh E., Biography-e Shahi moulvi Abdoljalil-e Qanbarzahi [Biography of the martyr Moulvi Abdoljalil-e Qanbarzahi] [Blog post]. Available from: http://safizadah.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/blog-post.html. Accessed 2 October 2010 (2012)
  19. Quds News, Koshtar diplomathay-e Irani az zabanetanha shed [Massacre of Iranian Diplomats from the only man who survived]. Quds Online, Available from: http://www.qudsonline.ir/NSite/FullStory/News/?Id=4638, Accessed 14 December 2014 (2011)
  20. Charles Rivers Editors, The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria: The history of ISIS/ISIL Marson Gate: Create Space Independent Publishing Platform, (2014)
  21. Sunni News. Moulwi Abdoljalil-e QanbarZahi rahbar-e sazeman-e hezb-e al-Forqan koshteh shod Moulwi Abdoljalil Qanbarzahi the leader of al-Forqan Organisation has been killed, Sunni-News.net. Available from: http://sunni-news.net/fa/articles.aspx? selected_article_ no=21517. Accessed 10 October 2014 (2012)
  22. Armian A., Takhrib-e Gornag Destruction of Gornag, n/a, (2000)
  23. Doshoki A., Haqayeq- e zaendagi- e Abdolmalek Rigi az souod ta soqut, The Facts of Abdolmalek-e Rigiís Life, [Blog post]. Available from: http://www.sardamdar.com /2010/06/blog-post_28.html, Accessed 20 February 2011 (2010)
  24. Rigi A., Jawab-e Abdulrauf-e Rigi Uzu-e Majmaí-e ulamay-e Jonbesh-e Moqavemat Jondollah wa sokhangvi Rasmi-e Jonbesh be Abdolwahed- e Rigi, The response of Abdolrauf Rigi, member of Cleric Association of Resistance Movement of Jondollah and spokesperson of Jondollah to Abdolwahed-e Rigi, Sunni News. Available from: http://sunni.rr.nu/fa/articles.aspx?selected_article_no=12815 Accessed 29 December 2010 (2010)
  25. Narui K., Sokhanguy-e jondollah pardeh az moameleh penhany-e dastigiri-e Rigi bardasht [Jondollahís spokeperson revealed the secret deals about arrest of Rigi]. Available from: http://taftan313.blogspot.co.uk/2010/03/ blog-post_08.html. Accessed 10 January 2013 (2010)
  26. Kohlmann E., NEFA Foundation: New Zawahiri audio - From Kabul to Mogadishu, [Blog post], Available from: http://counterterrorismblog.org/2009/02/nefa_foundation_new_zawahiri_a.php. Accessed 10 October 2011 (2009)
  27. Perry M., False flag, Foreign policy Available from http://foreignpolicy.com/2012/01/13/false-flag/. Accessed 4 September 2012 (2012)
  28. Mojahed. Jundallah military commander Maulvi Abdul Jalil to convey the message to testify Qanbar Zahi [Blog post]. Available from: http://m0jahed.wordpress.com/ 2012/03/29/%D9%BE%DB%8C%D8%A7%D9%85-% D9%81%D8%B1%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AF%D9%87-%D9%86%D8%B8%D8%A7%D9%85% DB%8C-%D8%AC%D9%86%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9% 84%D9% 84%D9%87-%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D8%AE% D8% B5% D9%88%D8%B5-%D8%A8%D9%87-%D8%B4/ Accessed 10 October 2012 (2012)
  29. Sunni News, Bayniy-e Ealane mojodyat-e Jaish al-Husain (raz) dar Baluchistan. [Statement declaring the existence of Jaish al-Hussain (RA) in Baluchistan], Sunni-News. Available from: http://sunninews.org/FA/articles.aspx? selected_article_no=19288. Accessed 2 October 2012 (2011)
  30. Ansar Fighters Movement. Harkat-e Ansar-e Iran [Blog]. Available from: http://ansariran.blogspot.co.uk/, Accessed 2 October 2012 (2012)
  31. Jundollah, Jundallah's Matyrs, Available from: http://shohada111.blogspot.co.uk/. Accessed 10 January 2013 (2012)
  32. Ansar Fighters Movement, Shaheed Hamza [Photograph]. Available from: http://ansariran.blogspot.co.uk/ 2012/10 /blog-post_561.html. Accessed 1 November 2012 (2012)
  33. Army of Justice. Jaish-ul-Adl [Army of Justice] [Blog post]. Available from: http://jaishuladl.blogspot.co.uk/. Accessed 2 October 2014 (2014)
  34. Ansar Fighters Movement, Statement announcing the availability of the Ansar movement in Iran, [Web log post]. Available from http://ansariran.blogspot.co.uk /2012/06/ blog-post.html Accessed 2 October 2012 (2012)
  35. Ansar Fighters Movement. Elamyeh Jadid Harkat Ansar-e Iran mabni bar amalyat-e estoon 1 Chahbahar, New Announcement of Harkat-e Ansar-e Iran about Thunder-1 Operations in Chahbahar, [Blog post]. Available from: http://ansariran.blogspot.co.uk/2012/10/1.html Accessed 14 October 2012 (2012)
  36. Sepah-e Sahabah-e-Iran. March, 2011), Companions of the Iranian Branch, [Blog post] Available from: http://www.sepah-sahaba.blogspot.co.uk/2011/03/blogpost.html. Accessed 2 October 2012 (2011)
  37. Sepah-e Sahabah-e-Iran. (2012, September 21), One of the regime's mercenaries killed by Mujahideen, [Blog post]. Available from: http://ssiran.wordpress.com/ 2012/09/. Accessed 2 October 2012 (2012)
  38. BBC. Torror-e emam Jomaeh Rask dar ostan-e sistan wa Baluchistan Terror imams of Friday prayers Rask in Sistan and Baluchestan, BBC News Persia. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2012/01/120121_l31_sunni_rask_terror_imam.shtml. Accessed 10 December 2014 (2012)
  39. BBC. Na Arami dar shahr-e Rask-e ostan-e Sistan wa Baluchistan, Unrest in Rask City of Sistan and Baluchestan, BBC News Persia. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk /persian/iran/2012/05/120516_l39_rask_baluchestan_unrest.shtml. Accessed 15 December 2014 (2012)
  40. Noraiee H., Jadal-e bain-e Jaish-adl wa Jaishe nasr: jihad baray-e koda, jihad baray-e mellat, jihad baray-e qodrat [Disputed between Jaish-e Adl and Jaisjh-e Nsr: Jihad for God, jihad for the nation, jihad for power] Available from: http://www.taptan.com/. Accessed 15 December 2014 (2014)
  41. Jaishe al-Adl, Elamye sazeman-e Jaish al-Adl; shahdat-e Abdulrauf Rigi ra be khanawadeh an amir-e bozrguar wa mellat-e baluchistan we ahle-sonnat-e azi tasliat miguim Announcement of Jaishe al-Adl organisation. We express our condolences regarding martyrdom of Abdulrauf Rigi to this honourable amirís family, Baluchistanís nation and respected Sunnis, [Blog post], Retrieved 15 November 2014, from http://edaalatnews.blogspot.co.uk/ 28August (2014)