9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Forest Economy of the Pengaparaja and the Depleting Forest Resources

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Visiting Faculty in Sociology, At/Po Katapali Via. Bardol Dist. Bargarh Odisha 768038 INDIA

Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 4, Issue (10), Pages 37-46, October,14 (2015)

Abstract

The forest inhabited by the pengaparaja absurd in several types of trees that provides them edible fruits, leaves and flowers. Among such trees conspicuous are aam(mango), mahul (mahua flower), tentuli(tamarind), panas(jack fruit), kendu(tendu) and jamu(black berry)which provide them with plentiful of fruits. Besides the fruits, the Pengaparaja also get a number of other foods from the surrounding forest. The forest, in addition, also provides suitable setting for the abode of the wild animals, some of which are suitable games for the Pengaparja. They also earn some of their livelihood through the sale of MFPs. In spite of various constraints like less amount of availability in comparison to the labour involved, problem of marketability and hazardous access to the forest, the Pengaparaja collect a number of commercially important MFPs along with the produces of their essential use. A good number of Pengaparja from the villages having depleted forest resources engage themselves in silling fuel wood as asource of income.

References

  1. Vidyarthi L.P. and Binaya Kumar Rai, Tribal culture of India. New Delhi:Conceptn Publishing Company, (1985)
  2. Hicks J.R., The Social Frameworks: An Introduction to Economics (3rd Edn.), London: Oxford University Press, (1960)
  3. Dalton George, Economic Anthropology and Development, New York: Basic Books (1971)
  4. Vidyarthi L.P., The Maler: Nature-Man-Spirit Complex in Hill Tribe of Bihar, Calcutta: Book Land Pvt. Lt (1963)
  5. UNO.1973,Report on the Development of Tribals and Hill Tribe People in the ECAFE Region, Bangkok: United Nations (1963)
  6. Sathyanarayanan C.R. and N. Chandra,Traditional Life, Livelihood and Plantations: A study among the Mullu Kurumba, Jr. Anth. Survey of India, 61(2) and 62(1), (595-615) (2013)
  7. Chandrasekharan C., Role of Non-wood Forest Products in Sustainable Forest Management, Forest Usufructs, 1 (1and2), 23-49(1998)
  8. Varma S.K., Evolving Mechanism for NTFP Oriented Forest Management, Forest Usufructs, 1, (n.1and2): 1-22 (1998)
  9. Shit P.K. and C.K. Pati, Non-Timber Forest Products for Livelihood Security of Tribal Communities: A Case Study in Paschim Medinipur District, West Bengal, J Hum Ecol,40(2), 149-156(2012)
  10. Khare Arvind, Community Base conservation in India, in Kothari et al. (eds.), Communities and Conservation: Natural Resource Management in South and Central Asia.New Delhi: Sage Publications 81-101 (1998)
  11. Kinhal G.A. and Ramanarayan, Tribal Dependence on Forests: Case Studies from Rajasthan, Journal of Rural Development, 13(4), 527-536 (1994)
  12. Furer Haimendorff, Christoph. C. Life among Indian Tribes. London: Oxford University Press (1990)
  13. Debashish Debnath, Tribe Forest Relationship, (pp 107-125) in Vidyut Joshi (ed.), Tribal Situation in India: Issues in Development, Jaipur: Rawat Publications (1980)
  14. Sharma Anju, Lost Eden,Down to Earth, November, 30,30-32 (1994)
  15. Samal J., Role of Forest in a Poor Resource Base Tribal Economy: A Micro-analysis, in P.M. Mohapatra and P.C. Mohapatra (eds.), Forest Management in Tribal Areas: Forest Policy and Peoples Participation, New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, 105-124 (1997)
  16. Pathak Akhileswar, Contested Domains: The State, Peasants and Forests in Contemporary India, New Delhi: Sage Publication (1994)