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Pressurized Population Growth with Progressive Health facility, Life Expectancy and Declining Death in Bangladesh

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh

Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 4, Issue (10), Pages 1-10, October,14 (2015)

Abstract

Population of a country is undoubtedly an important asset. On the other hand, overpopulation is considered as aging for any country. The present study was conducted to show the changing demographic scenario of Bangladesh by reviewing recent literature, especially population censuses of Bangladesh and other sources of demographic data. The division wise spatial distributions of demographic data were carried out by using Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. The population growth occurred rapidly with a steady state since 1974 to 2011. In 1974, highest and lowest number of population was found in Dhaka (21316067) and Khulna (14195274) division respectively. In 2011, highest and lowest number of population was found in Dhaka (47424418) and Barisal (8325666) division respectively. The growth of population was almost double in the large cities like Chittagong and Dhaka, after 37 years (1974-2011). The density of population was higher in urban areas where industrialization occurred rapidly. The highest and lowest population density was found in Dhaka (685 per square miles) and Khulna (401per square miles) respectively in 1974. In 2011, highest population density was also found in Dhaka division (1502per square miles). Compared to 1974, the literacy percentages of all the divisions were more than double in 2011. The highest and lowest literacy rate was found in Dhaka (56.75) and Syllhet division (45.01) respectively in 2011. Due to the advancement and improvement of heath care and medical facilities and prevention of some specific fatal diseases the death rate and life expectancy of Bangladeshi population was decreased and increased respectively. In 1981, the life expectancy at birth was only 54.8 years, but in 2011, it increased to 69 years at birth. Increased life expectancy results demographic variability because the highest percentage of the population is considered as aging. This study will strengthen the knowledge of current and past demographic conditions of Bangladeshi population so that the policy planner and policy maker can make proper political, social and economic commitment to manage the varying demographic conditions.

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