6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2020) will be Postponed to 8th and 9th May 2021 Due to COVID-19. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Development of Minorities' Rights and Critical Analysis of Contemporary Comparative International Human Rights Law for their Protection

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Law at Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, PAKISTAN

Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 2, Issue (7), Pages 53-58, July,14 (2013)

Abstract

Minorities have been a controversial issue throughout humans history; their legal protection has been even more problematic. It took hundreds of years to define the term minority but even the definition is problematic. The paper traces the development of minorities protection in international law, its definition and the contemporary comparative regional and international human rights law on the issue.

References

  1. Thornberry P., International Law and the Rights of Minorities, 1,(1991) Also Andre L., Minority as inferiority: minority rights in historical perspective, Rev. of Int. St, 34, 243(2008)
  2. Geoff G., Religio-nationalist minorities and development of minority law, Rev. of Int. St, 25, 389 (1999)
  3. Study of the Legal Validity of the Undertakings Concerning Minorities UN Doc E/CN.4/367(2010)
  4. Rehman J., International Human Right Law , 434 (2010)
  5. Fact Sheet No. 18 (Rev.), Minority Rights, 7, accessed via http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/pdfid/4794773e0.pdf on Dec, 08, (2011)
  6. Schutter O.D., International Human Rights Law, 713 (2010)
  7. EU Network of Independent Experts on Fundamental Rights, Thematic Comment No. 3, The Protection of Minorities in the European Union (2005)
  8. F. Capotorti, Special Rapporteur, Study on the Rights of Persons Belonging to Ethnic, Religious, and Linguistic Minorities (New York: United Nations, 1979) E/CN4/Sub 2/384/Rev 1, UN Sales No E91XIV2 at (1996)
  9. Article 1of Recommendation 1201 on an additional protocol on the rights of national minorities to the European Convention of Human Rights (1993)
  10. Dr. Iris B., Class Lecture, Brunel Law School London, 10/10/2011 (2011)
  11. Minority Rights: International Standards and Guidance for Implementation, United Nations, New York and Geneva, (2010)
  12. Such a short term view of minority rights ignores, says Geoff G., their long history, a history which shapes modern methods of upholding present day minority rights guarantees. (Religio-nationalist minorities and development of minority law) (1999)
  13. See, for example, the provisions of Austro-Ottoman Treaty (1615) Treaties of Osnabruck and Musnter and some other documents, known collectively as the Peace of Westphalia (1648) Treaty of Oliva (1650) Treaty of Peace between France and Great Britain (1713) and a number of other treaties of the age; it was so, can be argued that, religion defined people before the nation-state (Geoff G., (Religio-nationalist minorities and development of minority law) (1999)
  14. Henry Kissinger, A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of Peace, referenced by Andre L. (Minority as inferiority: minority rights in historical perspective) (2008)
  15. Claude, National Minorities: An International Problem (1955)
  16. Advisory Opinion of Permanent Court of International Justice on Minority Schools in Albania (1935) Ser. A/B, No 64, 17, also see Geoff G Religio-nationalist minorities and development of minority law also see (Thornberry P., International Law and the Rights of Minorities) (1999)
  17. Study of the Legal Validity of the Undertakings Concerning Minorities UN Doc E/CN.4/367 (1997)
  18. Adopted at New York, 16 December, 1966; entered into force (23 March 1976), GA Res. 2200A (XXI) UN Doc A/6316 (1966)
  19. 999 U.N.T.S. 171; 6 I.L.M. 368 (1967)
  20. General Comment No. 23: The rights of minorities (Art 27): 08/04/1994 CCPR/C/21/Rev./Add. 5, General Comment No. 23 accessed through http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/0/fb7fb12c2fb8bb21c12563ed004df111?Opendocument on (12/12/2011) (2011)
  21. Sandra Lovelace v. Canada, Communication No. 24/1977 CCPR /C/OP/ 1, 10 (1985)
  22. Hilpold P., UN Standard Setting in the Field of Minority Rights, Int. J of Minority and Group Rights14, 181 (2007)
  23. General Assembly Resolution 47/135 December (1992)
  24. Article 1(1) of the Declaration on Minorities (1992)
  25. Article 1(2) of the Declaration on Minorities (1992)
  26. General Assembly resolution 49/192 (1993)
  27. It was replaced by Forum on Minority Issues in 2007(2007)
  28. Julie R., Minority Rights in a Time of Multiculturalism, The evolving Scope of the Framework Convention on the Protection of Minorities, HRLR10, 99 (2010)
  29. Advisory Committees opinion on Norway, 12 September 2002, ACFC/INF/OP/I (2002) 003; also HRC Comment No 23 on Article 27 of ICCPR (2002)
  30. 29.Dr. Londono P., Class Lecture, Brunel Law School, London (2011)
  31. See, for example, Baczkowski v Poland, 48 E.H.R.R. 19 (2009)
  32. World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples (http://www.minorityrights.org/?lid=30) accessed on 14/12/2011
  33. Article of African Charter on Human and Peoples Right; adopted by the assembly of Head of States and Governments of the Organization of the African Union in 1981 and entered into force in 1986
  34. Article 17(2) of African Charter on Human and Peoples Right (1981)
  35. Article 19of African Charter on Human and Peoples Right (1981)
  36. Article 20(1)-(3) of African Charter on Human and Peoples Right (1981)
  37. Pamphlet No. 6 of the UN Guide for Minorities accessed through http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/GuideMinorities6en.pdf on 14/12/201137.Communication No. 211/98 (2001)
  38. Article of the American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man, 1948
  39. Article 3 and 4 respectively of the American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man (1948)
  40. Article 5 of the American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man (1948)
  41. Article 12 of the American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man (1948)
  42. Article 13 of the American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man (1948)
  43. Article 20 of the American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man (1948)
  44. Pamphlet No.5 of the UN Guide for Minorities accessed through http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/GuideMinorities5en.pdf on 14/12/201145.Inter-American Court H.R., (Ser. C) No. 130 (2005)
  45. Inter-American Court H.R., (Ser. C) No. 130 (2005)