Assessment of performance and water demand and supply deficit of Hakwatuna Oya irrigation system, Sri Lanka
- 1Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Eastern University, Sri Lanka
- 2Postgraduate Institute of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
- 3Postgraduate Institute of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
Res. J. Engineering Sci., Volume 6, Issue (9), Pages 23-28, October,26 (2017)
The Hakwatuna Oya is one of the major irrigation systems in Kurunagela district. Frequent crop failure, abandoning of cultivation and reduced crop yields are the common issues in this system, mainly due to climate variability and inappropriate irrigation water management decisions. Therefore, appropriate management interventions are necessary for effective, efficient and sustainable use of scarce water resource. Reliable and adequate data collection and analysis are necessary to find out the current water resource status of a system, required to make sound decisions in advance to ensure the sustainable management of an irrigation system. Further, estimation of water demand and supply deficit is a prerequisite for project planning, designing and management of an irrigation system. Performance assessment of irrigation systems using suitable indicators plays a vital role in identifying the shortcomings and in finding out solutions for increasing the productivity of the systems. In this study, performance of Hakwatuna Oya irrigation system was assessed and compared with other two major irrigation systems based on estimated values of selected indicators for 2014/15 Maha and 2015 Yala seasons. Water demand and supply deficit for the period from 2004-2014 were estimated using collected data. The results revealed that the average cultivation extent of Hakwatuna Oya system is nearly 46% in Yala and 87% in Maha seasons. Average cropping intensity of Hakwatuna Oya is 1.47 whilst it is 1.81 for Bathalagoda and 1.86 for Kimbulwana Oya. Although the Hakwatuna Oya irrigation system recorded the lowest seasonal irrigation water supply of 0.22 m3/m2and 0.44 m3/m2, the highest water productivity of 2.36 kg/m3and 1.04 kg/m3were recorded in 2014/15 Maha and 2015 Yala seasons, respectively. When compared to other two major irrigation systems, the Hakwatuna Oya is a water scarce system with relative water supply of 1.32 in 2014/15 Maha and 0.87 in 2015 Yala seasons. Demand and supply analysis showed that there is high fluctuation in annual demand and unmet demand from year to year due to variations in extent of cultivation, type of crop and water supply from reservoir and rainfall. Under long term average flow condition, cultivation of paddy in the entire command area in both Maha and Yala seasons demands nearly 30 MCM additional water supply.
- Karamouz M., Ahmadi A. and Akhbari M. (2011)., Groundwater Hydrology: Engineering, Planning and Management., Book. CRC Press, 1.
- Falkenmark M. and Molden D. (2008)., Wake up to realities of river basin closure., International Journal of Water Resources Development., 24(2), 201-215.
- UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). (2011)., Water: Investing in Natural Capital., Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication. Nairobi, UNEP. http://web.unep.org/greeneconomy/sites/unep.org.greeneconomy/files/field/image/green_economyreport_final_dec2011.pdf. Accessed on 20.05.2017.
- MPDI (Ministry of Policy Development and Implementation). (2003)., Report of the Task Force on the Rationalization of Paddy Purchasing, Processing, Marketing and Stockholding in Sri Lanka.,
- Aheeyar M.M.M. (2012)., Climate change adaptation in water management for food security: Recent developments in Sri Lanka-A review of Existing Knowledge and Information., A report submitted to Sri Lanka Water Partnership & Global Water Partnership –South Asia Colombo. 1-49. Bos M.G., Kselik R.A.L., Allen G.R. and Molden D. (2009). Water Requirements for Irrigation and the Environment. Springer, 172.
- De Alwis S.M.D.L.K. and Wijesekara. N.T.S. (2011)., Comparison of Performance Assessment Indicators for Evaluation of Irrigation Scheme Performances in Sri Lanka., Engineer, 44(3), 39-50.
- Small L.E. and Svendsen M. (1990)., A framework for assessing irrigation performance., Irrigation and Drainage Systems, 4(4), 283-312.
- Arunkumar R. and Ambujam N.K. (2010)., Performance Assessment of Canal Irrigation System., ISH Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 16, 146-155.
- Adeba D., Kansal M.L. and Sen S. (2015)., Assessment of water scarcity and its impacts on sustainable development in Awash basin, Ethiopia., Sustain. Water Resources Management, 1, 71-87.
- DOA. (2006)., Rice., Accessed on 10.06.2017. Available athttp://www.doa.gov.lk/index.php/en/crop-recommendations/808.
- Lin D. (2008)., Performance evaluation of participatory irrigation management by the supply chain balanced scorecard approach., Copenhagen University, Denmark.
- Malano H. and Burton M. (2001)., Guidelines for benchmarking performance in the irrigation and drainage sector., International Program for Technology and Research in Irrigation and Drainage Secretariat, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
- Rajendran M., Gunawardena E.R.N. and Dayawansa N.D.K. (2016)., Impact of Climate Change on Irrigation Water Demand of Paddy: a case study from Hakwatuna Oya Irrigation Scheme in Sri Lanka., Paper presented at 28th Annual Congress, Postgraduate Institute of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, November 17-18.
- Nayakakorale H.B. (1983)., Supplementary irrigation requirement for early grown lowland rice during the rainy season in dry zone., Regional Research Centre, Maha Illuppallama, Sri Lanka.
- Lenselink K.J. and Jurriens M. (1992)., Inventory of irrigation software for microcomputers., International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvements, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
- Molden D., Rust H.M., Sakthivadivel R. and Makin I. (2003)., A Water productivity framework for understanding and action., International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
- Rao P.S. (1993)., Review of Selected literature on indicators of irrigation performance., International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka.