9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Tar removal from Producer Gas: A Review

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Devi Ahilaya Vishwavidhlya, Takshila Campus, Indore, INDIA

Res. J. Engineering Sci., Volume 3, Issue (10), Pages 16-22, October,26 (2014)

Abstract

Gasification is the most appropriate technology for conversion of solid fuel (biomass) into a gaseous fuel, known as producer gas. Producer gas is a mixture of gases which consists of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen, tar and suspended particulate matter. For motive applications such as internal combustion engines, the tar present in producer gas may create problem, if the tar content in the producer gas is above 50-100 mg/Nm. A tar-free gaseous fuel can be obtained in a suitably designed producer gas conditioning unit whose sole purpose is to provide clean producer gas. Gas cleaning and conditioning systems to control tar levels are being continuously modified for better efficiency and cost effectiveness. Major techniques used in tar cleaning are thermal cracking, catalytic cracking and physical removal of tar. Many a times, combination of these techniques are used for better cleaning of producer gas. The following paper critically reviews the different techniques used for collection, identification and quantification of tars in producer gas obtained from biomass.

References

  1. Morris M., Catalytic cracking of tar in product gas from wood gasification, TPS; Termiske Processor AB, (2004)
  2. Neeft J.P.A., Knoef H.A.M., Onaji P., Behavior of tar in biomass gasification systems. Tar related problems and their solutions, November Report No.9919. Energy from Waste and Biomass (EWAB), Netherlands, (1999)
  3. Simell P., Kurkela E., Stahlberg P. and Hepola J., Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas, Catalysis Today; 27, 55-62 (1996)
  4. Iversen H.L. and Gobel Benny, Update on gas cleaning technologies for biomass gasification for different application, Biomass Gasification Group, Denmark, (2006)
  5. Milne T.A., Evans R.J., Biomass gasification “tars”: their nature, formation and conversion, NREL, Golden, CO, USA, Report no. NREL / TP - 570-25357 (1998)
  6. Zhao Y., Shaozeng S., Zhang T., Zhou H., Experimental research on fuel staging cyclone gasification of wood powder, Fuel, 103, 53–57 (2013)
  7. Mayerhofer M., Mitsakis P., Meng X., De Jong W., Spliethoff H. and Gaderer M., Influence of pressure, temperature and steam on tar and gas in allotherma fluidized bed gasification, Fuel, 99, 204–209 (2012)
  8. Yi Su, Yong Hoo Luo, Yi Chen, Wenguang Wu, Yunliang Zhang “Experimental and numerical inveatigasion of tar destruction under partial oxidation environment”. Fuel Processing Technology; 92, 1513-1524 (2011)
  9. Kitipong J., Sompop J., Kathrina M., Gratuito B., Wongsuwan H., Homhual S., Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply Approach, Bioresource Technology, 102,4834–4840 (2011)
  10. Yu Hong Qin, Jie Feng and WenYing Li, Formation of tar and its characterization during air steam gasification of sawdust in fluidized bed reactor, Fuel.,89, 1344-1347 (2010)
  11. Phuphuakrat T., Nipattummakul N., Namioka T.,Kerdsuwan S.and Yoshikawa K., Characterization of tar content in the syngas produced in a downdraft type fixed bed gasification system from dried sewage sludge, Fuel, 89, 2278–2284 (2010)
  12. Han and Kim, The reduction and control of tar during biomass gasification/pyrolysis: An overview, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review 12, 397-416 (2008)
  13. Monteiro S.N., Paterson N., Herod A.A., Dugwell D.R. and Kandiyoti R., Tar Formation and Destruction in a Fixed Bed Reactor Simulating Downdraft Gasification: Optimization of Conditions, Energy and Fuels, 22, 1955–1964 (2008)
  14. Wang T., Chang J., Lv P., Novel catalyst for cracking of biomass tar, Energy Fuel, 19, 20-27 (2005)
  15. Paasen S.V.P., Tar formation in fluidized-bed gasification-impact of gasifier operating conditions, The 2nd world conference and technology, 130-138 (2004)
  16. Li X.T., Grace J.R., Lim C.J., Watkinson A.P., Chen H.P. and Kim J.R., Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized bed, Biomass and Bio-energy,20, 171-93 (2004)
  17. Lopamudra Devi, Krzysztof J.P. and Francs J.J., A review of the primary measures for tar elimination in biomass gasification processes, Biomass and Bio-energy, 24, 125-140 (2003)
  18. Fagbemi L., Khezami L. and Caprat R., Pyrolysis product from different biomass application to the thermal cracking of tar, Applied Energy,69, 293-306 (2001)
  19. Bhattacharya S.C., Siddique AHMR, Pham H.L., A study on wood gasification for low tar production, Energy,24, 285-96 (1999)
  20. Pan Y.G., Roca X., Velo E., Puigjaner L., Removal of tar by secondary air injection in fluidized bed gasification gasification of residual biomass and coal, Fuel.,78, 1703-9 (1999)
  21. Narvaez I., Corella J. and Orio A., Fresh tar (from a biomass gasifier) elimination over a commercial steam-reforming catalyst: Kinematics and effect of different variables of operation, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research,36, 317-27(1997)
  22. Narvaez I, Orio A, Aznar MP, Corella J. Biomass gasification with air in an atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed. Effect of six operational variables on the quality of produced raw gas, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 35, 2110-2117 (1996)
  23. Kinoshita C.M., Wang Y. and Zhou J., Tar formation under different biomass gasification Conditions”, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 29, 169-81(1994)
  24. Toshiaki H., Kotetsu M., Tomohisa M., Satoshi H. and Kinya S., Hot and Dry Cleaning of Biomass-Gasified Gas Using Activated Carbons with Simultaneous Removal of Tar, Particles, and Sulfur Compounds, Catalysts, 2, 281-298 (2012)
  25. Jin-Won Kim, Tae Young Mun and Jin –O Kim, Air gasification of missed plastic wastes using a two stage gasifier for the production of producer gas with low tar and high calorific value, Fuel,90, 2266-2272 (2011)
  26. Siedlecki M. and W. de Jong, Biomass gasification as the first hot step in clean syngas production process-gas quality optimization and primary tar reduction measures in a 100 kW thermal input steam-oxyen blowm CFB gasifier, Biomass and Bio-Energy,30, 1-23 (2011)
  27. Jiu Huang, Schmidt G. and Zhengfu B., Removal and Conversion of Tar in Syngas from Woody Biomass Gasification for Power Utilization Using Catalytic Hydrocracking”, Energies, 4, 1163-1177 (2011)
  28. Rapagna S., Provendier H., Petit C., Kiennemann A. and Foscolo P.U, Development of catalysts suitable for hydrogen or syn-gas production from biomass gasification, Biomass and Bioenergy, 22(5), 377-388 (2002)
  29. Coll R., Salvado J., Farriol X. and Montane D., Steam reforming model compounds of biomass gasification tars, Fuel Process Techno,74, 19-31 (2001)
  30. Corella J., Orio A. and Toledo J.M., Biomass gasification with air in a fluidized bed: exhaustive tar elimination with commericial steam reforming catalysts, Energy Fuels,13, 702 -709 (2009)
  31. Rapagna S., Jand N. and Fosco P.U., Utilization of suitable catalyst for the gasification of biomass, Proceedings of the Tenth European Conference and Technology Exhibition on Biomass for Energy and Industry, Wurzburg, Germany; 1720-1730 (1998)
  32. Chembukulam S.K., Dandge A.S., Kovilur N.L., Seshagiri R.K., Valdyeswaran R., Smokeless fuel from carbonized sawdust”, Industria Engineering Chemistry Production Research Development, 20, 714-9 (1981)
  33. Milne T.A. and Evans R.J., Biomass gasifier tars: their nature, formation, and conversions, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO. NREL/TP-570–25357 (1998)
  34. Arena U., Zaccariello L. and Mastellone M.L., Tar removal during the fluidized bed gasification of plastic waste, Waste Management, 29, 783–791 (2009)
  35. Graciosa P., Nogueira E., Da Silva J., De Oliveira J. and Machado C., Sustainable energy: a review of gasification technologies, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 16, 4753–4762 (2012)
  36. Xu C., Donald J., Byambajav E. and Ohtsuka, Y ., Recent advances in catalysts for hot-gas removal of tar and NH3 from biomass gasification, Fuel, 89, 1784–1795 (2010)
  37. Nemanova V., Nordgreen T., Engvall K., Sjo¨stro¨m, K., Biomass gasification in an atmospheric fluidised bed: tar reduction with experimental iron-based granules, Sweden, Catayst. Today, 176, 253–257 (2011)
  38. Bangala D., Abatzoglou N., Martin J.P. and Chornet E., Catalytic gas conditioning: application to biomass and waste gasification, Ind. Eng. Chem, Res; 36, 4184–4192 (1997)
  39. L. Di Felice, Courson C., Niznansky D., Foscolo P.U. and Kiennemann A., Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Tar Reforming: A Model Study into Activity Enhancement of Calcium- and Magnesium-Oxide-Based Catalytic Materials by Incorporation of Iron, Energy Fuels, 24,4034–4045 (2010)
  40. Pan Y.G., Roca X., Velo E. and Puigjaner L., Removal of tar by secondary air injection in fluidized bed gasification gasification of residual biomass and coal, Fuel,78,1703-9 (1999)
  41. Adi Surjosatyo and Fajri Vidian, Tar Content Evaluation of Produced Gas in Downdraft Biomass Gasifier, Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment, 3(3), 210-212 (2012)
  42. Bergman PCA, Boerrigter H., Paasen S.V.B., Koneman J.W., Report on ECN-C-05-009, www.olgatechnology.com (2005)
  43. Baker E.G., Mudge L.K. and Brown M.D., Methanol and ammonia from biomass, Chemical Engineering Progress; 809120:43:6 (1984)
  44. Teeranai P., Hirotatsu W. and Okazaki K., Experimental investigation of intraparticle secondary reactions of tar during wood pyrolysis, Fuel, 104, 468–475 (2013)
  45. C. Andrea J and Akay G., Occurrence, composition and dew point of tars produced during gasification of fuel cane bagasse in a downdraft gasifier, Biomass and Bioenergy,42, 51 -58 (2012)
  46. Young N.C., Seong C.K. and Yoshikawa K., System development and analysis for producing high quality gas and activated sludge char, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology,26, 241-250 (2012)
  47. Wang Y., Yashikawa K., Nanioka T. and Hashimoto Y., Performance optimization of two staged gasification system for woody biomass, Fuel Process Technol,88, 243-250 (2007)
  48. Huber G.W., Iborra S. and Corna A., Synthesis of transportation fuels from biomass: chemistry, catalysts and engineering, Chem Rev., 106, 044-4098 (2006)
  49. Inaba M., Murata K., Saito M. and Takahara I., Hydrogen production by gasification of cellulose over Ni-catalysts support on zeolites, Energy Fuels; 20, 432-438 (2006)
  50. Aznar M.P., Cabaltero M.A., Gil J., Martin J.A. and Corell J., Commercial steam reforming catalyst to improve biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixture to catalytic tar removal, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 37, 2668-2680 (1998)