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Lethal efficacy of phytochemicals as sustainable sources of insecticidal formulations derived from the leaf extracts of Indian medicinal plants to control Dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti (Dipetra: Culicide)

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biotechnology, Sai Nath University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 9, Issue (3), Pages 44-54, July,22 (2020)

Abstract

Aedes aegypti mosquitoes transmitted the Dengue and Zika viruses to humans, which have recently caused the high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Vaccine and antiviral therapies for dengue and Zika infections are not available, and control of mosquito vectors is a specific strategy that minimizes the occurrence of these arboviral infections. The present research was aimed at exploring the larvicide and pupicidal properties of leaf extracts of three medicinal plants (Lantana camara, Catharanthus roseus, and Ficus religiosa) with acetone solvent against the immature stages of Aedes aegypti. The powdered plant material (leaf) of each plant was extracted using acetone. At 24 h post-exposure, the aqueous leaf extract measured at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm against Aedes aegypti larvae and pupae. All the three medicinal plant species were evaluated had possessed a different range of larvicidal and pupicidal property. Highest larvicidal and pupicidal activities were exhibited by Catharanthus roseus (LC50 ranged from 78.56-228.63ppm and LC90 ranged from 132.88 - 288.61ppm) compared to Lantana camara (LC50 ranged from 198.52-309.64ppm and LC90 ranged from 256.24-392.27 ppm) and Ficus religiosa (LC50 ranged from 223.25-339.16ppm and LC90 ranged from 289.3-419.42ppm). Catharanthus roseus leaves showed the highest larvicidal and pupicidal activities have contained alkaloids (catharanthine, tabersonine and ajmalicine). It can be used as an eco-friendly, repellent or anti-feeding and target-specific approach to control dengue and zika vector, Aedes aegypti. Further, advanced monitoring of the mode of intervention by the phytoconstituents, synthetic analogues, and field-based research is important for preparing strategies in the Aedes vector management programs.

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