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Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of textile effluent dilutions on Zea mays (maize plant)

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO), Nigeria
  • 2Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO), Nigeria

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 8, Issue (2), Pages 7-14, April,22 (2019)

Abstract

This research investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of textile mill effluent on the maize plant (Zea mays). Seeds of maize (Zea mays) were grown in wood shavings (4/treatment) irrigated with different concentrations of textile effluent (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) for 15 days. Most of the physicochemical parameters of the effluent, analyzed using specific instrument for each, were above permissible limits, examples are the COD (4208mg/L against 90mg/L), BOD (171mg/L against 50mg/L), Nitrate (71.2mg/L against 10mg/L), etc. There was complete loss of viability at concentration 100%, while germination reduced by 75%, 50% and 25% in 75%, 50% and 25% textile effluent concentrations respectively. Plant growth rate was inversely proportional to concentration increase; growth of the control significantly differed with other treatments at p<0.05. The cytotoxic effects were investigated using Automated Image Analyses Software and RAPD. RAPD analysis was performed on four pooled Genomic DNA extracted from shoots of the, 25%, 50%, 75% of the treatments and control (0%) plants after 15 days. Five decamer plant specific primers (OPB-11, OPT-11, OPH-08, OPK-11 and OPL-08) were utilized for screening of the Zea mays genome. Among them, 3 primers (OPB-11, OPT-11 and OPH-08) gave clear and stable bands. The RAPD profile obtained showed textile effluent had genotoxic effects on the plants. This was evident with the appearance and disappearance of bands in the treatments compared with the control. In all, 64 bands were scored, 31(48.4%) of these were polymorphic. Altogether, 13 new bands were formed while 15 were lost. A dendrogram of the four accessions using Weighted Neighbour-Joining (WNJ) procedure clustered the accessions into two major groups. The control (Maize-1) and treated 25% effluent (Maize-2) sample were clustered in one group with 67% bootstrap value. Group II, 50% effluent (Maize-3) and 75% effluent (Maize-4), were separated in another cluster, with 88% bootstrap value. The above results show that high concentrations of textile mill effluent have adverse genotoxic effects on the maize plant.

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