Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of textile effluent dilutions on Zea mays (maize plant)
- 1Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO), Nigeria
- 2Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO), Nigeria
Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 8, Issue (2), Pages 7-14, April,22 (2019)
This research investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of textile mill effluent on the maize plant (Zea mays). Seeds of maize (Zea mays) were grown in wood shavings (4/treatment) irrigated with different concentrations of textile effluent (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) for 15 days. Most of the physicochemical parameters of the effluent, analyzed using specific instrument for each, were above permissible limits, examples are the COD (4208mg/L against 90mg/L), BOD (171mg/L against 50mg/L), Nitrate (71.2mg/L against 10mg/L), etc. There was complete loss of viability at concentration 100%, while germination reduced by 75%, 50% and 25% in 75%, 50% and 25% textile effluent concentrations respectively. Plant growth rate was inversely proportional to concentration increase; growth of the control significantly differed with other treatments at p<0.05. The cytotoxic effects were investigated using Automated Image Analyses Software and RAPD. RAPD analysis was performed on four pooled Genomic DNA extracted from shoots of the, 25%, 50%, 75% of the treatments and control (0%) plants after 15 days. Five decamer plant specific primers (OPB-11, OPT-11, OPH-08, OPK-11 and OPL-08) were utilized for screening of the Zea mays genome. Among them, 3 primers (OPB-11, OPT-11 and OPH-08) gave clear and stable bands. The RAPD profile obtained showed textile effluent had genotoxic effects on the plants. This was evident with the appearance and disappearance of bands in the treatments compared with the control. In all, 64 bands were scored, 31(48.4%) of these were polymorphic. Altogether, 13 new bands were formed while 15 were lost. A dendrogram of the four accessions using Weighted Neighbour-Joining (WNJ) procedure clustered the accessions into two major groups. The control (Maize-1) and treated 25% effluent (Maize-2) sample were clustered in one group with 67% bootstrap value. Group II, 50% effluent (Maize-3) and 75% effluent (Maize-4), were separated in another cluster, with 88% bootstrap value. The above results show that high concentrations of textile mill effluent have adverse genotoxic effects on the maize plant.
- Spielvogel J.J. (2006)., Medieval and Early Modern Times., USA: National Geographic. 452.
- Khataee A.R. and Dehghan G. (2011)., Optimization of biological treatment of a dye solution by Macroalga, Cladophora sp. using response surface methodology., Journal of Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineering, 42, 26-33.
- Chen B.Y., Wang Y.M., Yeng C.Y. and Lin S.H. (2011)., Deciphering cost-effective biostimulation for dye-laden textile wastewater treatment using immobilized cell system., Taiwan Journal of Chemical Engineering, 42, 334-340.
- Lin S.H., Wang Y.M., Yen C.Y. and Chen B.Y. (2012)., Kinetic theory of biostimulation for azo dye decolorization using immobilized cell system., Journal of Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineering, 43(3), 399-408.
- Ayoola S.O., Bassey B.O., Alimba C.G. and Ajani E.K. (2012)., Textile effluent-induced genotoxic effects and oxidative stress in Clarias gariepinus., Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 15(17), 804-812.
- American Public Health Association-APHA (2015)., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater., Washington DC, USA, 22-24.
- National Environmental Standards and Regulation Enforcement Agency (NESREA) (2011)., Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette, National Environmental (Sanitation and Waste) Control., Federal Government of Nigeria Printer, Abuja, Nigeria, No. 60(96), 1057-1102.
- Enan M.R. (2006)., Application of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to detect the genotoxic effect of heavy metals., Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, 43(3), 147-154.
- United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2016)., Method 8270C, revision 3, Semi volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry., http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/ test/main.htm. 15/02/2016.
- Atienzar F.A. and Jha A.N. (2006)., The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and related techniques applied to genotoxicity and carcinogenesis studies: A critical review., Mutation Research, 613(2), 76-102.
- De Wolf H., Blust R. and Backeljau T. (2004)., The use of RAPD in ecotoxicology., Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 566(3), 249-262.
- Liu W., Yang Y.S., Li P.J., Zhou Q.X., Xie L.J. and Han Y.P. (2009)., Risk assessment of cadmium-contaminated soil on plant DNA damage using RAPD and physiological indices., Journal of Hazardous Materials, 161, 878-883.
- Raj A., Kumar S., Haq I. and Kumar M. (2014)., Detection of Tannery Effluent-Induced DNA Damage in Mung Bean by use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers., Indian Journal of Toxicology Research, 5(2), 200-208.
- Cenkci S., Yildiz M., Ciˇgerci I.H., Konuk M. and Bozdaˇg A. (2009)., Toxic chemicals-induced genotoxicity detected by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings., Chemosphere, 76(7), 900-906.
- Swaileh K.M., Hussein R. and Ezzughayyar A. (2008)., Evaluating wastewater-induced plant genotoxicity using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA., Environmental Toxicology, 23(1), 117-122.
- Alimba C.G., Adebayo L.O. and Femi J.O. (2015)., Cytotoxic and genotoxic assessment of textile effluent using Allium assay., Journal of Environmental Toxicology, 9, 220-229.
- Osibanjo O. and Adie G.U. (2007)., Impact of effluent from Bodija abattoir on the physicochemical parameters of Oshunkaye stream in Ibadan City, Nigeria., African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(15), 1806-1811.