Consequences of crude oil on some indigenous microorganisms and edible plants in Kogi State University demonstration farm, Anyigba, Nigeria
- 1Microbiology Department, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria
Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 8, Issue (1), Pages 16-22, January,22 (2019)
Different levels of crude oil were added to soil samples: 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% v/w for 4 weeks and observations were made for the effects of the crude on the indigenous bacterial and fungal populations and also on the dry matter of spinach, maize, tomato and beans crops. The microbial count showed that there was a progressive decrease in the microbial counts of the soil treated samples as shown in tables 2 and 3. Lower microbial counts were observed in the treated samples compared to control. The mean bacterial counts decreased at 2% treatment (2.46 X106) when compared to the control (0%) (2.60 X106) treatment, it slightly increases at 4% treatment to 3.06X106 then, the counts decreased all through the 6 and 8% treatments progressively. The mean fungal counts also had an initial decrease of 3.38X104 and 1.9 X104at both 2% and 4% treatments compared to the control which was 4.6 X104. The mean fungal count tend to increase at 6% (5.86 X104) but it decreased again at 8% (4.08 X104). The crude oil made the soil to be acidic compared to the control; it also made the soil to retain moisture content, thereby becoming water logged and anaerobic in nature; at 28 day, it slightly increased the contents of the organic matter in the treated soil samples. Phytochemical properties present in the plants (alkaloid, phenols, tannin and flavonoid) were affected negatively by the crude oil application. Also, it was observed that the stem dry weight matter, leaves dry weight matter and root dry weight matter reduced as the crude oil concentrations in the soil samples increased.
- IJER (2007)., Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated environment., International Journal of Environmental Research, 1(4), 307-320.
- Adams G.O., Tawari-Fugfeyin P. and Iglenyah E. (2014)., Bioremediation of spent oil contaminated soils using poultry litter., Research Journal in Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3(2), 124-130.
- Atlas R.M. and Bartha R. (1973)., Stimulated Biodegradation of Oil Slicks Using Oleophilic Fertilizers., Environmental Science & Technology, 7(6), 538-541.
- Walker J.D. and Colwell R.R. (1976)., Petroleum degradation by estuarine microorganisms., In: Proceedings of the Third International biodegradation symposium. Sharpley JM, Kaplan AM (editors), Applied Science Publishers, Ltd., London, 197-204.
- Gills L.S. and Sandota R.A.M. (1976)., Effect of foilarly applied CCC on the growth of Phaseolus aureus Roxb, Mung or green gram)., Banggladesh J. Biol. Sci., 15(1), 35-40.
- Glouse A.K.M., Saidi S.H. and Atique A. (1980)., Effect of pollution on the foliar organs of Callistemon citrinus Stap., F. J. Sci. Res., 2(1), 207-209.
- Atuanya E.I. (1987)., Effects of Waste Engine Oil Pollution on Physical and Chemical Properties of the Soil., Nigerian Journal of Applied Science, 55(1), 155-176.
- Rowell M.J. (1977)., The Effect of Crude Oil Spills on Soils. A Review of Literature., In: The Reclamation of Agricultural Soils after Oil Spills, Toogood, J.A. (Ed.). University of Alberta, Edmonton, 1-33.
- Smit B., Stachowiak M. and Volkenburgh E.V. (1989)., Cellular processes limiting leaf growth in plants under hypoxic root stress., Journal of experimental botany, 40(1), 89-94.
- Okpokwasili G.C. and Okorie B.B. (1988)., Biodeterioration potentials of microorganisms isolated from car engine lubricating oil., Tribol. Int., 21(4), 215-220.
- Antai S.P. and Mgbomo E. (1989)., Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria in the Ahoada oil-spill areas., Microbios Leters, 40(1), 137-143.
- Walkley A. and Black I.A. (1934)., An Examination of the Degtjareff Method for Determining Soil Organic Matter and Proposed Modification of the Chromic Acid titration Method., Soil Science, 37(1), 29-38.
- Odu C.T.I., Babalola O., Udo E.J., Ogunkunle A.O., Bakare T.A. and Adeoye G.O. (1986)., Laboratory manual for agronomic studies in soil, plant and microbiology., 1st ed. Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, 83.
- Collins C.H. and Lynes P.M. (1976)., Microbial Methods., Butterworths and Company Ltd. Great Britain, 159-427.
- Ekpo M.A. and Odu C.T.I. (2000)., Effect of drilling mud additives on dry matter production and yield of maize (Zea mays)., J. Appl. Sci., 4(1), 1885-1894.
- Harborne J.B. (1998)., Phytochemical Methods - A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Anbalysis., Chapman and Hall, London, 182-190.
- Evans W.C. and Trease G.E. (2002)., Trease and Evans pharmacognosy., 16th edition Saunders Ltd, China, 2002, 193-407.
- Ekpo M.A. and Ebeagwu C.J. (2009)., The effect of crude oil on microorganisms and dry matter of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis)., Scientific Research and Essays, 4(8), 733-739.
- Luhach J. and Chaudry S. (2012)., Effect of Diesel Fuel contamination on seed germination and growth of fouragricultural crops., Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology, 2(4), 311-317.
- Reddy N.R., Pierson M.D., Sathe S.K. and Salunkhe D.K. (1985)., Dry Beans Tannins: A Review of Nutritional Implications., Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 62(3), 541-549.
- Ekpo M.A. and Etim P.C. (2009)., Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Sida acuta on microorganisms from skin infections., Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 3(9), 621-624.
- Amakiri J.O. and Onofeghara F.A. (1984)., Effects of crude oil pollution on the germination of Zea mays and Capsicum frutescens., Environmental Pollution Series A, Ecological and Biological, 35(2), 159-167.
- Proffitt C.E., Delvin D.E. and Lindsey M. (1995)., Effect of oil on mangrove seedlings grown under different environmental conditions., Marine Pollution Bul., 30(12), 788-793.
- Ekpo M.A. and Nwaankpa I.L. (2005)., Effect of crude oil on microorganisms and growth of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in the tropics., J. Sustainable Trop. Agric. Res., 16, 67-71.
- Odu C.T.I. (1972)., Microbiology of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons III. Natural rehabilitation and reclamation of soils affected., Institute of petroleum Technology Publication, 77-102.
- Ekpo M.A. and Ekpo E.I. (2006)., Utilisation of Bonny light and Bonny medium crude oils by microorganisms isolated from Qua Iboe River Estuary., Nig. J. Microbiol., 20, 832-839.
- Nakamura S., Sakamoto Y., Ishiyama M., Tanaka D., Kunu K., Kubo K. and Sato C. (2007)., Characteristic of two oil-degradingbacteria groups in the Nakhodka oil spill., International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 60, 202-207.
- Hozumi T., Tsutsumi H. and Kono M. (2000)., Bioremediation on the shore after an oil spill from the Nakhodka in the sea of Japan. 1. Chemistry and characteristics of heavy oil loaded on the Nakhodka and biodegradation tests by a bioremediation agent with microbiological cultures in the laboratory., Marine pollution bulletin, 40, 308-314.
- Baker J.M. (1971)., The effects of oils on plants., Environ. Pollution, 1, 27-44.
- Odu C.T. (1981)., Degradation and weathering of crude oil under tropical condition., Proceedings of the International Seminar on the Petroleum Industry and the Nigerian Environment, November 9-12, 1981, NNPC, Lagos, 164-170.
- Anoliefo G.O. and Vwioko D.E. (1995)., Effects spent lubricating oil on the growth of Capsicum annum L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Miller., Environmental Pollution, 88, 361-364.