Tree diversity and carbon fraction variation in urban forests of central India with reference to Gwalior division, India
- 1School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India
- 2School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India
- 3School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India
- 4School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India
Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 7, Issue (2), Pages 33-41, February,22 (2018)
Importance of conservation due to declining nature of biodiversity in urban forestry has gained lot of attention. Biodiversity plays a prominent role in mitigation of atmospheric carbon dioxide in addition to fertility of soil. Permanent quadrats (20 x 20 m) were established for estimation of phytosociological parameters and carbon stock at two different sites. Results of qualitative parameters revealed highest density as well as relative density for Pongamia pinnata at site I while for Prosopis juliflora at site II. Azadirachta indica dominated both the site I and site II with 100% and 75% frequency followed by IVI (55.56) and (42.66), basal area (3115.28) and (4567.06) at respective sites. Simpson\'s Diversity Index was recorded highest at site I and lowest at site II while Shannon Wiever index and Menhinick’s Richness was observed highest at site II as compared to site I. Both the sites were found with diversity of species as per Sorensen coefficient. Carbon stock was calculated highest at site II with AGC 72.56 ton/ha, BGC 10.88 ton/ha and TC 83.44 ton/ha respectively. Winter season showed maximum attributes of soil carbon with highest at surface layer of soil. Soil organic carbon, soil organic matter along with fractions I and fraction III was found maximum at site II as compared to Site I. The study concluded that diversity has main role in sustaining the environment through number of processes. Management practices can prove effective to enhance the plantation which would be helpful in mitigation of climate change.
- Tilman D., Lehman C.L. and Thomson K.T. (1997)., Plant diversity and ecosystem productivity: Theoretical considerations., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94(5), 1857-1861.
- Sarkar A.K. (2016)., Ecological Studies of Tree Vegetation of Ramshai Forest Range, Gorumara National Park, India., International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 5(7), 53-59.
- Moktan S. and Das A.P. (2014)., Plant species Richness and Phytosociological attributes of the Vegetation in the cold temperate zone of Darjiling Himalaya, India., International Research Journal of Environment Sciences, 3(10), 14-19.
- Gorte R.W. (2009)., Carbon Sequestration in Forests. Congressional Research Servic., CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress, 1-23.
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2003)., Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry., Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) for the IPCC.
- Gibbs H.K., Brown S., Niles J.O. and Foley J.A. (2007)., Monitoring and estimating tropical forest carbon stocks: making REDD a reality., Environmental Research Letters, 2, 1-13.
- Berthrong S.T., Jobbagy E.G. and Jackson R.B. (2009)., A global meta-analysis of soil exchangeable cations, pH, carbon, and nitrogen with afforestation., Ecological Applications, 19(8), 2228-2241.
- Ramachandran A.S., Jayakumar R.M., Haroon A.B. and Arockiasamy D.I. (2007)., Carbon Sequestration: Estimation of carbon stock in natural forests using geospatial technology in the eastern ghats of Tamil Nadu, India., Current Science, 92(3), 323-331.
- Jakhar R.R., Yadav S.R., Jakhar R.K., Devra P., Ram H. and Kumar R. (2017)., Potential and Importance of Carbon Sequestrations in Agricultural Soils., International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6(2), 1776-1788.
- Batjes N.H. (1999)., Management options for reducing CO2-concentrations in the atmosphere by increasing carbon sequestration in the soil., Report 410-200-031, Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change & Technical Paper 30, International Soil Reference and Information Centre, Wageningen, 1-114.
- Batjes N.H. and Sombroek W.G. (1997)., Possibilities for carbon sequestration in tropical and subtropical soils., Global Change Biology, 3(2), 161-173.
- Lal R. (2004)., Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change., Geoderma, 123, 1-22.
- Kremer P., Hamstead Z., Haase D., McPhearson T., Frantzeskaki N., Andersson E., Kabisch N., Larondelle N., Rall E.L., Voigt A., Baro F., Bertram C., Baggethun E.G., Hansen R., Kaczorowska A., Kain J.-H., Kronenberg J., Langemeyer J., Pauleit S., Rehdan K., Scheweniu M., Ham C.V., Wurster D. and Elmqvist T. (2016)., Key insights for the future of urban ecosystem services research., Ecology and Society, 21(2), 29.
- Sheikh M.A., Sharma S. and Tiwari A. (2017)., Phytosociological characters and biodiversity of sacred grove a preliminary study., International Research Journal of Environment Sciences, 6(1), 67-69.
- Simpson E.H. (1949)., Measurement of diversity., Nature, 163.
- Shannon C.E. and Weaver W. (1949)., The mathematical theory of communication., Urbanna: Univ. Illinois press, 29, 117.
- Menhinick E.F. (1964)., A comparison of some species individuals diversity indices applied to samples of field insects., Ecology, 45(4), 859-861.
- Sorensen T. (1948)., A method of establishing groups of equal amplitude in plant sociology based on similarity of species content., Det Kong. Danske Videnak. Selk. Biol. Skr. (Copenhagen), 5, 1-34.
- Anderson J.M. and Ingram J.S.I. (1993)., A Handbook of Methods., Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility, 2nd ed. CAB International, Wallingford.. ISBN 0 85198 821 0.
- Brown S. (1997)., Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forests: a Primer., FAO Forestry Paper-134 Rome, Italy.
- MacDicken K.G. (1997)., A guide to monitoring carbon storage in forestry and agroforestry projects., Arlington VA (US): Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Forest Carbon Monitoring Programme, 1-87.
- Walkley A. and Black I.A. (1934)., An examination of method for determining organic carbon in soils: effect of variation in digestion conditions and of inorganic soil constituents., Soil Science, 63, 251-263.
- Chan K.Y., Bowman A. and Oates A. (2001)., Oxidizible organic carbon fractions and soil quality changes in oxicpaleustalf under different pasture leys., Soil Science, 166, 61-67.
- Waxman S.A. and Stevens K.R. (1930)., A critical study of the methods for determining the nature and abundance of soil organic matter., Soil Science, 30(2), 97-116.
- Sheikh M.A., Bhat B.A., Tiwari A. and Thakur A. (2013)., Impact of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Soil on AMF Diversity during different Seasons in Gwalior Region., International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 4(12), 3284-3288.
- Bhat B.A., Sheikh M.A. and Tiwari A. (2014)., Impact of various edaphic factors on AMF spore population and diversity in Catharanthus roseus at Gwalior., International Journal of Plant Sciences, 9(1), 1-6.
- Salim M., Kumar P., Gupta M.K. and Kumar S. (2015)., Seasonal Variation in some Chemical Characteristics of the soil under different land uses of Jhimil Jheel Wetland, Haridwar-Uttrakhand, India., International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5(10), 1-9.
- Turner B.L., Yavitt J.B., Harms K.E., Garcia M.N. and Wright S.J. (2015)., Seasonal changes in soil organic matter after a decade of nutrient addition in a lowland tropical forest., Biogeochemistry, 123, 221-235.
- Kirschbaum M.U.F. (1995)., The temperature dependence of soil organic matter decomposition and the effect of global warming on soil organic C storage., Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 27(6), 753-760.
- Oliveira F.E.R.d., Oliveira J.d.M. and Xavier F.A.d.S. (2016)., Changes in Soil Organic Carbon Fractions in Response to Cover Crops in an Orange Orchard., Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 1-12.
- Chaudhury S., Bhattacharyya T., Wani S.P., Pal D.K., Sahrawat K.L., Nimje A., Chandran P., Venugopalan M.V. and Telpande B. (2016)., Land use and cropping effect on carbon in black soils of semi-arid tropical India., Current Science, 110, 9, 1692-1698.
- Sheikh M.A., Kumar M. and Bussmann R.W. (2009)., Attitudinal variation in soil organic carbon stock in coniferous subtropical and broad leaf temperate forests in Garhwal Himalaya., Carbon balance and management, 4, 6.
- Naik S.K., Maurya S. and Bhatt B.P. (2017)., Soil organic carbon stocks and fractions in different orchards of eastern plateau and hill region of India., Agroforestry Systems, 91(3), 541-552.
- Sreekanth N.P., Shanthi P.V., Babu P. and Thomas A.P. (2013)., Soil carbon alterations of selected forest types as an environmental feedback to climate change., International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3(5), 1516-1530.
- Bhatt M., Patel E. and Jasrai Y.T. (2015)., Dynamics of soil organic carbon and soil texture in Marine National Park, Gujarat., International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5, 1-5.
- Bhattacharyya T., Pal D.K., Chandran P., Ray S.K., Mandal C. and Telpande B. (2008)., Soil carbon storage capacity as a tool to polarize area for carbon sequestration., Current Soil, 95(4), 482-494.
- Grace P.R., Antle J., Aggarwal P.K., Ogle S., Paustian K. and Basso B. (2012)., Soil carbon sequestration and associated economic costs for farming systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plain: A meta-analysis., Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 146, 137-146.
- Houghton R.A. (2007)., Balancing the global carbon budget., Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 35, 313-347.
- Manna M.C., Singh M., Wanjari R.H., Mandal A. and Patra A.K. (2016)., Soil Nutrient Management for Carbon Sequestration., Encyclopedia of Soil Science, Third Edition, 1-6.
- Misra R. (1973)., Ecology Workbook., Oxford and IBH Publishing Co, India, Second Edition, 36-53.
- Piyaphongkul J., Gajaseni N. and Na-Thalang A. (2011)., A Comparative Study of Carbon Sequestration Potential in Aboveground Biomass in Primary Forest and Secondary Forest, Khao Yai National Park., Biomass and Remote Sensing of Biomass, 199-212.