5th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Physiological and biochemical study of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle under cadmium heavy metal stress

Author Affiliations

  • 1PG Department of Botany, Berhampur University, Odisha-760007, India
  • 2PG Department of Botany, Berhampur University, Odisha-760007, India
  • 3PG Department of Botany, Berhampur University, Odisha-760007, India

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 7, Issue (10), Pages 1-8, October,22 (2018)

Abstract

Hydrilla verticillata, is a widespread submerged plant in Bhanjabihar is selected and inoculated in different concentration of cadmium (Cd) (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5ppm) as well as taken a control and studied on the physiological and biochemical parameters like total chlorophyll, protein, carbohydrate, amino acid and studies enzymatic activities like catalase and peroxidase under continuous light were studied in the summer season. The cadmium stress caused considerable inhibition of growth and synthesis of biomolecules with proportional to the concentration of metal. The cadmium toxicity decreased in biomolecules compounds like chlorophyll, protein, carbohydrate, amino acid and catalase and Peroxidase enzyme activity at lower concentration i.e., at 1ppm as well as higher concentrations like 2, 3, 4, and 5ppm. But at higher concentration of cadmium ie., 5ppm was found to be more toxic in the present study. There was a loss of total chlorophyll pigment shown in H. verticillata plant in cadmium stress. The protein content was decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) up to 2ppm, then slightly increased in 3ppm was observed. Also, amino acid content was decreased in all concentration of cadmium stress when compared to control. Sugar content also decreased in all concentration of cadmium solution but less toxic effect found in 1ppm as the sugar content was nearby to the control. Same way the activity of catalase enzyme showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased at the lowest concentration. With the increase of cadmium concentration, the decrease of catalase activity was found. Peroxidase enzyme also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.001) at 1ppm, however, the highest percentage of increase in peroxidase enzyme activity was found at 5ppm. The study suggests that the plant H. verticillata as of a phytoremediation of cadmium and used as a bioindicator to access the metal toxicity in the aquatic system.

References

  1. Lepp N.W. (1981)., Effect of heavy metal pollution on plants., Applied science publishers.
  2. Foy C.D., Chaney R.L. and White M.C. (1978)., The physiology of metal toxicity in plants., Annu. Rev. Plant physiology, 29, 511-566.
  3. Woolhouse H.W. (1983)., Toxicity and tolerance in the responses of plants to metals., Physiological plant ecology III, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 245-300.
  4. Gupta S.C. and Goldsbrough P.B. (1991)., Phytochelatin accumulation and cadmium tolerance in selected tomato cell lines., Plant Physiol, 97, 306-312.
  5. Van Assche F. and Clijsters H. (1990)., Effects of metals on enzyme activity in plants., Plant, Cell & Environment, 13(3), 195-206.
  6. Chandra P. and Kulshreshtha K. (2004)., Chromium accumulation and toxicity in aquatic vascular plants., The Botanical Review, 70(3), 313-327.
  7. Shah K. and Dubey R.S. (1998)., A18 kDa cadmium inducible protein Complex: its isolation and characterisation from rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings., Journal of plant physiology, 152(4-5), 448-454.
  8. Moya J.L., Ros R. and Picazo I. (1993)., Influence of cadmium and nickel on growth, net photosynthesis and carbohydrate distribution in rice plants., Photosynthesis Research, 36(2), 75-80.
  9. Rai U.N., Tripathi R.D., Sinha S. and Chandra P. (1995)., Chromium and Cadmium bioaccumulation and toxicity in Hydrilla verticillata (l.f.) Royle and Chara corallina Wildenow., Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part - A, 30(3), 537-551.
  10. Arnon D.I. (1949)., Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplast: Polyphenol oxidase in Beta vulgaris., Plant Physiol, 24, 1-15.
  11. Lowry O.H., Rosenbrought N.J., Farr A.L. and Randal R.J. (1951)., Protein measurement with the Folin Phenol reagent., J. Biol. Chem., 193, 265-275.
  12. Moore S. and Stein W.H. (1948)., Photometric nin-hydrin method for use in the ehromatography of amino acids., Journal of biological chemistry, 176, 367-388.
  13. Yoshida S., Forno D.A., Cock J.H. and Gomoz K.A. (1971)., Laboratory Manual for Physiological Studies of Rice., 2nd edn. International Rice Research Institute, Loss Banos, Philippines.
  14. Kar M. and Mishra D. (1976)., Catalase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase activities during rice leaf senescence., Plant Physiology, 57(2), 315-319.
  15. Siedlicka A. and Krupa Z. (1996)., The interaction between cadmium and iron and its effects on the photosynthetic capacity of primary leaves of Phaseous vulgaris., Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 34, 833-841.
  16. Falaky A.A., Aboulros S.A., Saoud A.A. and Ali M.A. (2004)., Aquatic plants for bioremediation of wastewater., 8th International Water Technology Conference, 361-377.
  17. Ahmad P., Sharma S. and Srivastava P.S. (2007)., In vitro selection of NaHCO3 tolerant cultivars of Morus alba (local and Sujanpuri) in response to morphological and biochemical parameter., Hort. Sci. (Prague), 34, 114-122.
  18. Griffiths W.T. (1975)., Characterization of the terminal steps of chlorophyllide synthesis in etioplast membrane preparations., Biochem. J., 152(3), 623-655.
  19. Kumar A., Metwal M., Kaur S., Gupta A.K., Puranik S., Singh S. and Yadav R. (2016)., Nutraceutical value of finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], and their improvement using omics approaches., Frontiers in plant science, 7, 934.
  20. Ericson M.C. and Alfinito A.E. (1984)., Proteins produced during salt stress in tobacco cell cultures., Plant Physiology, 74(3), 506-509.
  21. Palma J.M., Sandalio L.M., Javier C.F., Romero-Puertas M.C., Mc Carthy I. and del Ro L.A. (2002)., Plant proteases protein degradation and oxidative stress: the role of peroxisome., Plant physiology and Biochemistry, 40(6-8), 521-530.
  22. Davies C.S., Nielsen S.S. and Nielsen N.C. (1987)., Flavor improvement of soybean preparations by genetic removal of lipoxygenase‐2., Journal of the American Oil Chemists
  23. Garg P., Tripathi R.D., Rai U.N., Sinha S. and Chandra P. (1997)., Cadmium accumulation and toxicity in submerged plant Hydrilla verticillata (LF) Royle., Environmental monitoring and assessment, 47(2), 167-173.
  24. Kumar M., Tomar M. and Bhatnagar A.K. (2000)., Influence of Cadmium on growth and development of Vicia faba Linn., Indian J. Exp. Biol., 38(8), 819-823.
  25. Stiborová M., Ditrichová M. and BŘEzinová A. (1987)., Effect of heavy metal ions on growth and biochemical characteristics of photosynthesis of barley and maize seedlings., Biologia Plantarum, 29(6), 453.
  26. Tripathi R.D., Rai U.N., Gupta M. and Chandra P. (1996)., Induction of phytochelatins in Hydrilla verticillata (lf) Royle under cadmium stress., Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, 56(3), 505-512.
  27. Tendon P.K. and Srivastava M. (2004)., Effect of cadmium and nickel on metabolism during early stages of growth in gram (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds., Indian J. Agric. Biochem., 17, 31-34.
  28. Saleh M. and Al-Garni S. (2006)., Increased heavy metal tolerance of cowpea plants by dual inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen fixer Rhizobium bacterium., Afr. J. Biotechnol., 5, 133-142.
  29. Shim I.S. Monose Y. Yamamoto A., Kim D.W. and Usui K. (2003)., Inhibition of catalase activity by oxidative stress and its relationship to salicylic acid accumulation in plants., Plant Growth Regul., 39, 285-292.
  30. Lee K.C., Cunningham B.A., Paulsen G.M., Liang G.H. and Moore R.B. (1976)., Effects of cadmium on respiration rate and activities of several enzymes in soybean seedlings., Physiol. Plant., 36, 4-6.
  31. Van Assche F., Clijsters H. and Cardinales C. (1988)., Induction of enzyme capacity in plants as a result of heavy metal toxicity in Phaseolus vulgaris L., by the treatment of Cd and Zn. Environ. Pollut., 52, 103-115.