Assessment of the quality of locally made burukutu and kunu (Sorghum based alcoholic and non - alcoholic) beverage in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria
- 1Department of Chemistry, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria
- 2Department of Chemistry, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria
- 3Department of Chemistry, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria
Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 6, Issue (6), Pages 1-7, June,22 (2017)
The research is designed to examine the quality of locally made burukutu and kunu in a university town of Anyigba, Kogi State. Anyigba, a university town was chosen for this study. A total of eight samples (4 each of burukutu and kunu) were collected. The samples were collected randomly from different vendors or sellers at different locations and the samples were analyzed according to the procedure of AOAC. Results revealed that the concentration of Fe was the highest of all the metals determined. The difference in mean concentration of Fe in burukutu and in kunu is statistically significant (p>0.05). Average concentration of Na, Mg, K and Ca in burukutu was 1.30±0.00, 5.8±2.2, 0.52±0.00 and 5.3±2.6 (mg/kg) respectively. Corresponding values of Na, Mg, K and Ca in kunu are 0.31±0.00, 5.3±2.6, 0.02±0.00 and 3.0±2.2 (mg/kg) respectively. The order of concentration of metals in burukutu was Fe>Mg>Ca>Zn>Na>Cu>K. The corresponding trend in kunu was Mg>Fe>Zn>Na>Cu>K. Lead and cadmium were not detected in this study. The mean value of heavy metals in seasoning and spices in this study was also compared with mean values from previous work and regulatory standard limits. The proximate composition of burkutu and kunu analysis shows that the pH was slightly acidic and both contained good percentage carbohydrate content. Burukutu and kunu are nutritious, body building and energy beverages. Current quality does not pose threat to human health.
- Bender D.A and Bender A.E. (1999)., Benders Fictionary of Nutrition and food Technology., 7th edition wood head publishing, Abington, 67-72.
- B.N.F (British Nutrition Fictionary) (1994)., Starchy foods in the die BNF, London., 68-73.
- Paul Harrison (2002)., World Agriculture: Towards 2015/ 2030. Summary Report., FAO, Romel.
- Iherkoronye A.I. and Ngoddy P.O. (1985)., Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics., Integrated food science and technology for the tropics, 113-132.
- Kolawole A.O. and Afronya I.K. (2007)., Micro organism in food (2nd ed)., Abel and CO Ltd, Los Angeles, 281-293.
- Adams M.R. (1985)., Microbiology of fermented foods B.J.D. Wood (ed)., Elservier, Applied Science London, 11-15.
- Adejuyitan J.A, Adelakun O.E, Olaniyan S.A. and Popoola F.I. (2008)., Evaluating the quality characteristic of kunu produce by dry-milled sorghum., African journal of Biotecnology, 7(13), 2244-2247.
- Elmalhmood A.M and Doughari J.H. (2007)., Microbial quality assessment of kunu-zaki beverages sold in griei town of Adamawa State, Nigeria., African Journal of food Science, 11-15.
- Adeyemi I.A. and Umar S. (1994)., Effect of the method of Manufacture on the quality characteristics of kunu-Zaki a millet based beverage. Nigeria., food Journal, 12, 36-38.
- Ahmed E.U., Musa N. and Ngoddy P.O. (2003)., Sensory attributes of extruded cereal legume blends of instant kunu-zaki beverage analogue., proceedings on the 2nd Annual NIFSI conference, Pages: 5-6.
- Gaffa T., Jideani I.A and Nkama I. (2002)., Traditional productional, Consumption and storage of kunu a non alcoholic cereal bevereage., Plant food for human consumption, African Journal of food Science, 57(1), 73-81.
- Karl L.W., Travis S.H, Marilyn B.O and Murli R.D. (1993)., Making Wine for Home Use., State Fruit Experiment Station, Southwest Missouri State University, Mountain Grove.
- AOAC (2005)., Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International., 18th ed.,AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
- Ofudje E.A., Okon U.E., Oduleye O.S. and Williams O.D. (2016)., Proximate, Mineral Contents and Microbial Analysis of Kunu-Zaki (A Non-Alcoholic Local Beverage) in Ogun State, Nigeria., Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, 7(1), 1-8.
- Amusa N.A and Ashaye O.A. (2009)., Effects of processing on nutritional, microbiological and sensory properties of kunu-zaki (A sorghum based non-alcoholic beverage) widely consumed in Nigeria., Par. J. Nutr., 8(3), 288-292.
- Akoma O., Jiya E.A., Akumk D.D. and Mshelia E. (2006)., Influences of malting on the nutritional characteristics of kunu-zaki., African Journal Biotech, 5(10), 996-1000.
- Adebayo G.B., Otunola G.A. and Ajao T.A. (2010)., Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of kunu prepared from millet, maize and guinea corn and stored at selected temperature., Adv. J. Food Sci. and Technol, 2(1), 41-46.
- Ikpoh I.S., Lennox J.A., Ekpo I.A., Agbo B.E., Henshew E.E. and Udoekong N.S. (2013)., Mircrobial quality assessment of kunu beverage locally prepared and hawked in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria., Journal of Current Research in Science, 1(1), 20-23.
- Musa A.A. and Hamza A. (2013)., Comparative analysis of locally prepared ‘kunun aya’ (tiger-nut milk) consumed by students of Kaduna State University, Kaduna-Nigeria., Science World Journal, 8(2), 13-18.
- Wonang D.L. and Opoefe W.O. (1999)., Effect of malting period on the fungal load, mycotoxin content of malted grains and alcoholic in Jos., West African Journal Biological Science, 9, 97-107.
- Adeleke B.O. and Abiodun O.A. (2010)., Physic-chemical properties of Commercial local beverages in Osun State Nigeria., Pakistan Journal Nurtition, 9(9), 853-855.
- Essien E.B, Monago C.C. and Edor E.A. (2011)., Evalution of the nutritional and microbiological quality of kunu (A cereal based non-alcoholic beverage) in River State, Nigeria., The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness, 10 (2), 1-10.
- Farhath K., Sudarshanakrishna K.R., Semwal A.D., Vishwanathan K.R. and Khanum F. (2001)., Proximate Composition and Mineral Contents of Spices., Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, 38(3), 93-97.
- Macrae R., Robinson R.K. and Sadler M.J. (1993)., Encyclopaedia of food Science Food Technology and Nutrition., Academic Press, London, 46-51.
- Augustine C.O., Christian I.A., Mfon F.A. and Ukpong S.U. (2013)., A comparative study of the nutritional values of palmwine and kunu-zaki., Annals Food Science and Technology, 14(1), 39-43.
- Kalagbor I. and Diri E. (2014)., Evaluation of heavy metals in orange, pineapple, avocado pear and pawpaw from a form in kanni, Bon, River State Nigeria., Int. Res J public Environ Heal, 1(4), 87-94.
- Kassa B. and Hailay K. (2014)., Determination of trace metals Oliefera using atomic absorption spectroscopy., Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 4(17), 52-55.
- Prasad A.S. (2003)., Zinc deficiency: Has been known of for 40 years but ignored by global health organizations., Brit Med J, 326(7386), 409-410.
- Brown K.H., Peerson J.M., Allen L.H. and Rivera J. (2002)., Effect of supplemental zinc on the growth and serum zinc concentrations of prepubertal children: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials., Am J Clin Nut, 75(6), 1062-1071.
- Hambidge K.M. and Krebs N.F. (2007)., Zinc deficiency: a special challenge., J. Nutr., 137(4), 1101-1105.