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Climate resilience and water, sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) interventions in Nepal

Author Affiliations

  • 1Aquatic Ecology Centre, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Nepal
  • 2Aquatic Ecology Centre, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Nepal
  • 3Aquatic Ecology Centre, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Nepal
  • 4Aquatic Ecology Centre, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Nepal

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 6, Issue (12), Pages 14-22, December,22 (2017)


Realizing the linkages of climate change, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and public health, this study aims to comprehend if WASH interventions made in Nepal are climate resilient. Any interventions implemented by either government or non-government sector to enhance Water (quality, quantity, access); Sanitation (access, status, coverage); and Hygiene (personal and community hygiene promotion); was considered as WASH interventions. A trend analysis of temperature and precipitation data over a period of thirty years (1984-2013 AD) was performed. The temperature is increasing in faster rate in all Eco regions, especially in the Mountains. Mean annual precipitation shows no clear trend except for Terai, where it is in increasing trend. Effects of climate change vary differently in Nepal due to its ecological diversity. Meteorological trend possess double trouble for water quality and water quantity as well. WASH interventions till date are concentrated on the supply side. Systematic approach to address the issues of climate resilience is entirely missing. Coping capacity of current Water and Sanitation infrastructures with probable climatic effects is vulnerable. The emerging climate scenario demands climate resilient infrastructures and interventions. Designing Eco region based Water and Sanitation infrastructures with interventions in micro- catchment level can be climate resilient and sustainable. The Water Safety Plan can be a reasonable option for minimizing possible risks in WASH sector. Climate and disease vulnerable districts identified in this review document would be worth considering for building climate resilient WASH.


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