6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2020) and Workshop on Intellectual Property Rights. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Influence of Xanthium indicum L. water extracts on DNA and RNA contents of green gram (Phaseolus radiatus L.)

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Botany, Aska Science College, Aska-761111, Dist. Ganjam, Odisha, India

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 6, Issue (1), Pages 22-27, January,22 (2017)


Nucleic acids are molecules which act as intelligent hinge and containing nitrogen compound, some sugar and an acid. Due to its structural stoichiometry, it is highly stable form among the all macromolecules. Inspite of its stable structure, influx of allelochemicals and other metabolites to cell matrix develop a stress condition which is susceptible to damage of nucleic acids and their internal metabolic processes. In order to find out the allelopathic effect Xanthium indicum L. allelochemicals on nucleic acids of green gram, a pot culture experiment was conducted with different concentrations of various types of aqueous leachate of test weed. The results showed that different concentrations of various types of aqueous leachate of test weed (5, 10, 15 and 20 %) were exhibited a significant negative correlations with increase in the various types of leachate concentrations of test weed and positive correlations with increase in growth period upto 10 DAS thereafter a negative correlation were marked. This indicates that allelopathic stress of various types of leachates of Xanthium indicum L. were phytotoxic to green gram, when incubation period increase (i.e. 10 days after sowing) the degree of toxicity was higher, this might have due to the increase of more allelochemicals by cellular absorption and it attribute to change the cell matrix. The changed internal milieu of cellular matrix with higher concentration of allelochemicals and other intermediate dynamic unstable molecular species generated by allelopathic stress are reduced or disorganized the DNA and RNA contents. This piece of investigation reveals the adverse effect of allelochemical of Xanthium indicum L. on DNA and RNA contents of green gram.


  1. Bakkali F., Averbeck S., Averbeck D. and Idaomar M. (2008)., Biological effects of essential oils-a review., Food Chem. Toxicol, 46(2), 446–475.
  2. Pawlowski A., Kaltchuk-Santos E., Zini C. A., Caramao E. B. and Soares G. L. G. (2012)., Essential oils of Schinus terebinthifolius and S. molle (Anacardiaceae): Mitodepressive and aneugenic inducers in onion and lettuce root meristems., South Afric. J. Bot., 80, 96–103.
  3. Cruz-Ortega R., Anaya A.L., Hernandez-Bautista B.E. and Laguna-Hernandez G. (1998)., Effect of allelochemicals stress produced by Sicyos deppi on seedling root ultrastructure of Phaseolus valgaris and Cucurbita ficifolia., J. Chem. Ecol., 24(12), 2039-2057.
  4. Kekec G., Mutlu S., Alpsoy L., Sakcali M.S. and Atici O. (2013)., Genotoxic effects of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) essential oils on some weed and crop plants., Toxicol. Ind. Health, 29(6), 504–513.
  5. Sunar S., Yildirim N., Aksakal O. and Agar G. (2013)., Determination of the genotoxic effects ofConvolvulus arvensis extracts on corn (Zea mays L.) seeds., Toxicol. Ind. Health, 29(5), 449–459.
  6. Dudai N., Poljakoff-Mayber A., Mayer A.M., Putievsky E. and Lerner H.R. (1999)., Essential oils as allelochemicals and their potential use as bioherbicides., J. Chem. Ecol., 25(5), 1079–1089.
  7. Chaimovitsh D., Abu-Abied M., Belausov E., Rubin B., Dudai N. and Sadot E. (2010)., Microtubules are an intracellular target of the plant terpene citral., Plant J., 61(3), 399–408.
  8. Chaimovitsh D., Rogovoy Stelmakh O., Altshuler O., Belausov E., Abu-Abied M. and Rubin B. (2012)., The relative effect of citral on mitotic microtubules in wheat roots and BY2 cells., Plant Biol.,14(2), 354–364.
  9. Grana, E., Sotelo T., Diaz-Tielas C., Araniti F., Krasuska U. and Bogatek R. (2013)., Citral induces auxin and ethylene-mediated malformations and arrests cell division in Arabidopsis thaliana roots., J. Chem. Ecol., 39(2), 271–282.
  10. Wink M. and Latz-bruning B. (1995)., Allelopathic properties of alkaloids and other natural-products-possible modes of action., in Allelopathy: Organisms, Processes, and Applications, eds Inderjit A., Dakshini K. M. M., Einhellig F. A., editors. (Washington, DC: American Chemical Society Press) 582, 117–126.
  11. Ramos A., Rivero R., Visozo A., Piloto J. and Garcνa A. (2002)., Parthenin, a sesquiterpene lactone ofParthenium hysterophorus L. is a high toxicity clastogen., Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 514 (1-2), 19–27.
  12. Zhang S., Ong C. N. and Shen H. M. (2004)., Critical roles of intracellular thiols and calcium in parthenolide-induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells., Cancer Letters, 208(2), 143–153.
  13. Marco J.A., Sanz-Cervera J.F., Corral J., Carda M. and Jakupovic J. (1993)., Xanthanolides from Xanthium: absolute configuration of xanthanol, isoxanthanol and their C-4 epimers., Phytochemistry, 34(6), 1569–1576.
  14. Ahmed A.A., Mahmoud A.A. and El-Gamal A.A. (1999)., A xanthanolide diol and a dimeric xanthanolide from Xanthium species, . Planta Medica, 65(5), 470–472.
  15. Zhang L., Ruan J. and Yan L. (2012)., Xanthatin induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M checkpoint and apoptosis via disrupting NF-κB pathway in A549 non-small-cell lung cancer cells., Molecules,17(4), 3736–3750.
  16. Baziramakenga R., Leroux G.D., Simard R.R. and Nadeau P. (1997)., Allelopathic effects of phenolic acids on nucleic acids and protein levels in soyabean seedlings., Can. J. Bot., 75(3), 445-450.
  17. Padhy B., Mishra P. and Gantayat P.K. (2002)., The Allium test, an alternative bioassay in allelopathic studies: Impact of aqueous phyllode-litter leachate of Acacia auriculaeformis., Indian Journal of Environment and Eco-Planning, 6, 99-104.
  18. Abraham G.N., Scaletta C. and Vaaghan J.H. (1972)., Modified diphenylmine reaction for increased sensitivity., Anal. Biochem., 49(2): 547-549.
  19. Schneider W.C. (1945)., Phosphrous compounds in animal tissue, Extraction and Estimation of deoxypentose nucleic acid and pentose nucleic acid., J. Biol. Chem., 161, 293.
  20. Neiltower G.H., Spencer P.A. and Rodriquez E. (1989)., In: Phytochemical Ecology: Allelochemica, Micotoxin, Insect Pheromones and Allelomones, (Eds. C.H. Chou and G.R. Waller), Taipai., R.O.C., 9, 546.
  21. Svensson S.B. (1972)., The effects of coumarin on growth, production of dry matter, protein and nucleic acids in roots of maize and wheat and the interaction of coumarin with metabolic inhibitors., Physiol. Plant. 27(1), 13-24.
  22. Wink M. and Twardowski T. (1992)., Allelochemical properties of alkaloids, effect on plants, bacteria and protein biosynthesis., In: Allelopathy: Basic and Applied Aspects (Eds. S.T.H. Rizvi and v. Rizvi, chapman and Hall), London, U.K. 129-150.
  23. Nishida N., Tamotsu S., Nagata N., Saito C. and Sakai A. (2005)., Allelopathic effects of volatile monoterpenoids produced by Salvia leucophylla: Inhibition of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis in the root apical meristem of Brassica campestris seedlings., J. Chem. Ecol., 31(5), 1187–1203.
  24. Hallak A.M.G., Davide L.C. and Souza I.F. (1999)., Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) root exudates on the cell cycle of the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root., Genet. Mol. Biol. 22(1), 95–99.
  25. Li Z.H., Wang Q., Ruan X., Pan C.D. and Jiang D.A. (2010)., Phenolics and plant allelopathy., Molecules, 15(12), 8933–8952.
  26. Fang C., Li Y., Li C., Li B., Ren Y. and Zheng H. (2015)., Identification and comparative analysis of microRNAs in barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in response to rice allelopathy., Plant Cell Environ., 38(7), 1368–1381.
  27. Padhy B., Pattnaik P.K. and Tripathy A.K. (2000)., Allelopathic potential of Eucalyptus leaf litter- leachate on the germination and seedling growth of finger-millet., Allelopathy Journal, 7(1), 69-78.
  28. Pattnaik P.K. (1998)., Studies on Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus leaves on ragi (Finger millet) crop., Ph. D. Thesis, Berhampur University, Berhampur, Odisha.
  29. Tripathy A.K. (2000)., Studies on the allelopathic effect of Acacia species on some rice ( Oryza Saliva L.) cultivoers., Ph.D. Thesis, Berhampur University, Berhampur, Orissa, India.
  30. Gantayet P.K. (2007)., Studies on Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus on some legume crops., Ph. D. Thesis, Berhampur University, Odissa, India.