Rapid microbiological examination of water quality in ponds of Vadodara city, Gujarat, India
- 1Dept. of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
- 2Dept. of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 6, Issue (1), Pages 18-21, January,22 (2017)
Fresh water is one of the most important resources without which life would not exist on planet Earth. The exponential growth of human population has caused deterioration of global resources with conditions most severe in under developed and developing countries. Physical and chemical contaminants entering in ponds, lakes and other freshwater reservoir have caused devastating effects on floral and faunal diversity of the system. In addition to this, the biological contaminants in general and pathogens in particular are also of prime importance for qualitative analysis of the water quality. Presence of pathogens may cause severe health issues such as infection, diarrhoea, vomiting etc. The issue is very serious specifically in the case of developing countries due to lack of sanitation and prevalence of unhygienic conditions. The current study was aimed to assess biological contamination with special emphasis on coliform E. coli and MPN (per 100 ml). The water samples were drawn from 6 ponds of Vadodara city, Gujarat, India. Out of the 6 ponds studied, 4 showed MPN (per 100 ml) to be 1100 and above showing heavy microbial contamination. Moreover, all of the ponds under investigation showed presence of E. coli which is indicative of faecal contamination. The results of the rapid study provides basis for further expansion of the study with more emphasis on public health risk.
- Petersen P.E. (2003)., The World Oral Health Report 2003: continuous improvement of oral health in the 21st century–the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme., Community Dentistry and oral epidemiology, 31(s1), 3-24.
- Clasen T., McLaughlin C., Nayaar N., Boisson S., Gupta R., Desai D. and Shah N. (2008)., Microbiological effectiveness and cost of disinfecting water by boiling in semi-urban India., The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 79(3), 407-413.
- Clasen T., Schmidt W.P., Rabie T., Roberts I. and Cairncross S. (2007)., Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea: systematic review and meta-analysis., Bmj, 334(7597), 782.
- Parikh Ankita N. and Mankodi P.C. (2012)., Limnology of Sama Pond, Vadodara City, Gujarat., Res. J. Recent Sci, 1(1), 16-21.
- Suthar S., Chhimpa V. and Singh S. (2009)., Bacterial contamination in drinking water: a case study in rural areas of northern Rajasthan, India., Environmental monitoring and assessment, 159(1), 43-50.
- Prescott L.M. (2002)., Microbiology 5th edition., The McGraw- Hill Companies, 1-1147. ISBN: 0-07-282905-2
- Bindu B. and Janak J. (2009)., Identifying Malaria Risk Zones Using GIS-A Study of Vadodara City., J. Commun. Dis, 41(4), 239-248.
- State, District and Taluka wise Salient Features of Population Statistics (2001 and 2011)., Gujarat, Directorate of economics and statistics, 2013., retrieved at http://gujecostat.gujarat.gov.in/wpcontent/uploads/2013/Dist_Salient_Pop_Stat_2011.pdf on 10/10/2016.
- Pepper I.L., Gerba C.P. and Brendecke J.W. (1995)., Environmental microbiology: a laboratory manual., Academic Press, San Diago, 15.
- APHA (1998)., Standard Methods for examination of Water and Wastewater., 20th edn. American Public Health Association, New York. 1 – 2670, ISBN 0-87553-235-7.
- Gautam S.P., Reeta K., Suniti P., Basu D.D. and Kamyotra J.S. (2005)., Guide manual: water and waste water analysis., Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India.
- Gopal B. and Zutshi D.P. (1998)., Fifty years of hydrobiological research in India., Hydrobiologia, 384(1-3), 267-290.
- Hoekstra A.Y., Mekonnen M.M., Chapagain A.K., Mathews R.E. and Richter B.D. (2012)., Global monthly water scarcity: blue water footprints versus blue water availability., PLoS One, 7(2), e32688.
- Das J. and Acharya B.C. (2003)., Hydrology and assessment of lotic water quality in Cuttack city, India., Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 150(1), 163-175.
- Safari D., Mulongo G., Byarugaba D. and Tumwesigye W. (2012)., Impact of Human Activities on the Quality of Water in Nyaruzinga Wetland of Bushenyi District Uganda., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci, 1(4), 1-6.
- Srinivasan J.T. and Reddy V.R. (2009)., Impact of irrigation water quality on human health: A case study in India., Ecological Economics, 68(11), 2800-2807.
- Shah K.A. an Joshi G.S. (2015)., Evaluation of water quality index for River Sabarmati, Gujarat, India., Applied Water Science, 1-10.