Pollution Status of Yamuna River, India - A National Concern

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Botany, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110007, India
  • 2Department of Botany, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110007, India
  • 3Department of Botany, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110007, India
  • 4Department of Chemistry, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110007, India
  • 5Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India
  • 6Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 5, Issue (12), Pages 1-6, December,22 (2016)

Abstract

Water pollution is a global problem which poses a serious threat to humans, animals and aquatic species. The River Yamuna is the major source of water supply to Delhi. It is getting pollution due to household, industrial, agricultural waste, sewage discharge as well as religious activities. Heavy metals are one of the major pollutants which are harmful to human, animals and tend to bioaccumulate in food chain. Use of phytoremediation technique for removal of toxic metals is an ecofriendly and sustainable approach to control water or soil pollution. In this study we tried to depict the pollution status of Yamuna water and its control by phytoremediation. An investigation was conducted to study the physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis of water samples collected from three polluted sites of Yamuna River - Wazirabad, ITO and OKhla, compared to tap water, used as control. The results were analysed and match up to the standards laid by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). For phytoremediation study, the three aquatic plants Eichhornia, Salvinia and Hydrilla were selected on the basis of their availability in Delhi\'s climatic conditions in Yamuna River. Our results clearly indicated that ITO water sample was the most polluted as the total dissolved solids, turbidity and total hardness were the highest in those samples. Among heavy metals, Arsenic (As) content was ten times higher beyond BIS permissible limit in Okhla sample. Chromium (Cr) content was the highest in Wazirabad, followed by ITO. Plant growth was higher in polluted water than control indicating the high tolerance of the plants to the stress level. Investigation for remediation of heavy metals by phytoremediation is still under progress.

References

  1. Aina M.P., Kpondjo N.M., Adounkpe J., Chougourou D. and Moudachirou M. (2012)., Study of the Purification Efficiencies of three Floating Macrophytes in Wastewater Treatment., I. Res. J. Environ. Sci., 1(3), 37-43.
  2. Rao M.V.S., Rao V.D. and Bethapudi S.A.A. (2012)., Assessment of Quality of Drinking Water at Srikurmam in Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh, India., I. Res. J. Environ. Sci., 1(2), 13-20.
  3. Paliwal R., Sharma P. and Kansal A. (2007)., Water quality modeling of the river Yamuna (India) using QUAL2E-UNCAS., J. Environ. Manage., 83, 131-144.
  4. Sharma D. and Kansal A. (2011)., Water quality analysis of River Yamuna using water quality index in the national capital territory, India (2000-2009)., Appl. Water Sci., 1, 147-157.
  5. Kaur B.J., George M.P. and Mishra S. (2013)., Water quality assessment of river Yamuna in Delhi stretch during Idol immersion., I. J. Environ. Sci., 3, 2122-2130.
  6. Vyas A. and Bajpat A. (2007)., Water quality survey and monitoring study of idol immersion in context of lower lake, Bhopal, India., Proceedings of Taal: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp 1818-1821.
  7. Anil Kumar M. (2010)., A River about to Die: Yamuna., J. Water Resource Prot., 2, 489-500.
  8. Central Pollution Control Board (2006)., Report on Water Quality Status of Yamuna River, 1999-2005., http://www.cpcb.nic.in/newitems/11.pdf, 18/04/2016.
  9. Pilon-Smits E.A.H. (2005)., Phytoremediation., ‎Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 56, 15-39.
  10. Bureau of Indian Standards (2009)., Drinking Water- Specifications., Second Revision of IS 10500.
  11. Eugene W. Rice, Rodger B. Baird, Andrew D. Eaton and Lenore S. Clesceri (1992)., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater., American Water Works Association, Washington D.C., 1-1496. ISBN(s):9780875530139.
  12. Mandal P., Upadhyay R. and Hasan A. (2010)., Seasonal and spatial variation of Yamuna River water quality in Delhi, India., Environ. Monit. Assess., 170, 661- 670.
  13. Chitanand M.P., Gyananath G. and Lade H.S. (2008)., Bacterial assessment of groundwater: A case study of Nanded city., J. Environ. Biol., 29, 315-318.
  14. Chabot R., Antoun H. and Cescas M.P. (1996)., Growth promotion of maize and lettuce by phosphate-solubilizing Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar. phaseoli., Plant Soil, 184, 311-321.
  15. Pattern C.L. and Glick R.B. (1996)., Bacterial biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid., Can. J. Microbiol., 42, 207-220.