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Effects of Heavy Metals (Cu and Cd) on Growth of Leafy Vegetables- Spinacia oleracea and Amaranthus caudatus

Author Affiliations

  • 1School of Environment and Natural Resources, Doon University, Dehradun-248001, Uttarakhand, INDIA
  • 2 Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Natubhai V. Patel College of Pure and Applied Sciences, Sardar Patel University,Vallabh Vidhyanagar-388120, Gujarat, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 4, Issue (6), Pages 63-69, June,22 (2015)


The sewage water has been recommended for crop and in some areas this is also being used for irrigation of vegetables incase non-availability of water sources. The wastewater contains several hazardous chemicals including heavy metal which may cause serious issues of plant growth and human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic impact of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on the growth parameters (shoot and root length, leaf number, shoot, root and leaf fresh and dry weight) of Spinacia oleracea and Amaranthus caudatus seedlings. The experiment was conducted using earthen pots and CuCl and CdCl salts were selected for experimental set-ups to test the toxicity of Cu and Cd, respectively in plants. The experimental set-ups were prepared as per standard protocol for plant toxicity testing. Two concentrations of heavy metals: low (50 ppm) and high (250 ppm) were tested for plant toxicity assessment. A set-up without metal was used as experimental control. As compare to control the set-up with Cu showed slight decrease in growth parameters but Cd causes high impact at same dose. While at higher doses both metals caused significant toxic impact and all studied parameters were low as compared to control set-up. Comparatively, Amaranthus caudatus was more sensitive towards metal toxicity as compared to Spinacia oleracea. Toxicity caused by selected heavy metals was in order Cd&


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