9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Ambient Air Particulate Matter Levels in Selected Urban Centres of Niger Delta Region, Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Industrial Chemistry, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B. 053 Abakaliki, NIGERIA
  • 2Department of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, P.M.B 7267 Umuahia, Abia, NIGERIA

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 4, Issue (4), Pages 54-63, April,22 (2015)

Abstract

This study measured total suspended particulate (TSP) matter load, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ten micrometer or less (PM10) and two and half micrometer or less (PM2.5) in five urban centres in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria in the dry and wet seasons from December, 2008 to September, 2009 using photometric laser-based particle counter instrument. The results showed that the seasonal mean varied in the range of 72.2512.32- 320.06235.42 g m-3for the TSP in the dry season and 16.314.77 87.9427.32 g m-3 forthe wet season. The seasonal mean of (PM10) ranged from 42.449.74 - 181.3850.64 and 6.942.05 59.8820.89 g m-3 for the dry and wet seasons respectively. Similarly, PM2.5 gave 13.562.63-55.0029.45 g m-3 and 1.811.11-12.883.48 g m-3respectively for the dry and wet seasons. The annual mean of TSP in all the cities were within World Health Organization (WHO) annual guideline limit of 230-250 g m-3 Also PM10 annual levels exceeded the 20 g m-3 WHO annual guideline limitwhile PM2.5 annual levels in two cities (Uyo and PortHarcourt) exceeded the US annual National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 15 g m-3. The F-test statistics revealed statistical significant difference in the dry and wet seasonal means of TSP in Eket and Uyo (p0.05). The PM10 dry seasonal level in Eket and Uyo wetseasonal level were significant (p0.05) while PM2.5 dry seasonal level in Eket and wet seasonallevels in Uyo and PortHarcourt were statistical significant (p0.05). The study concluded that the high levels of PM10 and PM2.5 in all the cities monitored especially in the dry season may present a potential public health risk.

References

  1. Gomez D.R., Reich S.L., Dawidowski L.E. and Vazquez C. A., Combined Analysis to Identify Airborne PM10 Sources, J. Environ. Monit.,, 52-59 (2005)
  2. European Communities Commission, EC., Proposal of Council on Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe, 2005/0183 (COD), Brussels, 21st Sept, (2005)
  3. Wehner B., Birmili W., Gnauck T. and Wiedensohler A., Particlenumber size distributions in a street canyon and their transformationinto the urban-air background: Measurements and a simple model study, Atmos. Environ., 36, 22152223 (2002)
  4. Friedlander S.K., Koch W. and Main H. H., Scavenging of a coagulating fine aerosol by a coarse particle mode, J. Aerosol Sci., 22, 18 (1991)
  5. Bigg E. K., A mechanism for the formation of new particles in the atmosphere, Atmospheric research, 43, 129137 (1997)
  6. Weber R.J., McMurry P.H., Mauldin III R. L., Tanner D.J., Eisele F.L., Clarke A.D. and Kapustin V. N., New particle formation in the remote troposphere: A comparison of observations at various sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(3), 307310 (1999)
  7. Shendell D.G. and Naeher L.P., A pilot study to assess ground level ambient air concentration of fine particles and carbon monoxide in urban Guatamala, Environment International,28, 375-382 (2002)
  8. Sodhi G.S., Fundamental Concepts of Environmental Chemistry 2nd Edition, Narosa Publishing House, New Deihi, 56-65 (2005)
  9. Philip R.S and Graham J.J., Fine Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Public Health Impact on Populations in the North Eastern United States, Environ. Health Persp., 113(9), 1140-1147 (2005)
  10. Natusch D.E and Wallace J.S., Urban Aerosol Toxicity: The Influence of Particle size, Science, 186, 695 (1974)
  11. Pope C.A. and Dockery D.W., Health effects of fine particulate air pollution, J Air Waste Manag Assoc, 56, 709-42 (2006)
  12. Beelen R., Hoek G., van den Brandt P.A. and Goldbohm R.A., Long-termexposure to traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer risk, pidemiology, 19, 702-710 (2008)
  13. Rosenlund M., Forastiere F. and Porta D., Trafic-related air pollution in relation to respiratory symptoms, allergic sensitisation and lung function in schoolchildren, Thorax , 64, 573-580 (2009)
  14. Davidson C.I., Phalen R. and Solomon P., Airborne Particulate Matter and Human Health: A Review, Aerosol Science and Technology, 39, 737749 (2005)
  15. Samet J.M., Dominic F., Currieo F.C., Coursac T and Zeagr S. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality in 29 US Cities 1987-1994, N. Engl. J. Med., 343, 1742-1749 (2000)
  16. Speizer F.E and Heath C.W., Particulate Air-Pollution as a Predictor of Mortality in a Prospective-Study of Us Adults, American Journal ofRespiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 151, 669-674 (1995)
  17. Prajapati S.K and Tripathi B.D., Seasonal variation of leaf dust accumulation and pigment content in plant species exposed to urban particulate pollution, Journal of environmental quality, 37, 865-870 (2008)
  18. Kim Y.J., Lee K.W., Kim S and Ham J.S., Fine particulate characteristics and its impact on visibility impairment at two urban sites in Korea; Seoul and Incheon, Atmospheric environment,40, 5593-5605 (2006)
  19. EPA, Protecting visibility: An EPA report to congress, research triangle park, NC office of air quality and planning standards EPA report no, EPA-450/5-79-008 (1979)
  20. Ferm M., Watt J., O'Hanlon S., Santis F. De and Varotasas C., Deposition measurement of particulate matter in connection with corrosion studies, Anal.Chem. Bioanal., 384,1320-1330 (2006)
  21. Tuch T., Brand P., Wichmann H.E. and Heyder J., Variation of Number and Mass Concentration in Various Size Ranges of Ambient Aerosols in Eastern Germany, Atmos. Environ., 31,42934197 (1997)
  22. JICA/PAKEPA Report, Investigation of Air and Water Quality in Lahore, Rawalpindi and Islambad, (2002)
  23. Ikamaise V., Obioh I.B., Ofoezie I.E and Akeredolu F.P., Monitoring of Total Suspended Air Particulate in the Ambient Air of Welding, Car Painting and Battery Charging Workshops in Ile-Ife, Nigeria Global, J. Pureand App. Sci., 7, 743-748 (2001)
  24. Akeredolu F.P., Atmospheric Environment Problems in Nigeria: An Overview, Atmos. Environ.,23(4), 7-10 (1989)
  25. Abam F.I. and Unachukwu G.O., Vehicular emissions and air quality standards in Nigeria, Euro journal34(4) 550-560 (2009)
  26. Koku C.A. and Osuntogun B.A., Environmental impacts of road transportation in South, Western states of Nigeria, Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(16), 2536-2550 (2007)
  27. Efe S.I., Spatial distribution of particulate air pollution in Nigerian cities: Implication for human health, J. Environmental Health Research, 2(7), 9-13 (2008)
  28. Ngele S.O., Fine and total suspended particulate matter in ambient air of Abakaliki, Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria (JCSN), 34(2), 24-30 (2009)
  29. Pope A.C., Epidemiology of Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Human Health: Biologic Mechanism and who,s at Risk, Environ. Health Perspect.,108, 713-723 (2000)
  30. Remoundaki E., Papayannis A., Kassomenos P., Mantas E., Kokkalis P. and Tsezos M., Influence of Saharan Dust transport events on PM2.5 concentrations and composition over Athens, Water, Air Soil Poll., 224, 1373-1379 (2013)
  31. Pope A.C., Epidemiology of Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Human Health: Biological Mechanism and who,s at Risk, Environ. Health Perspect.,108,713-723 (2000)