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Lichen as a Bio-Indicator Tool for Assessment of Climate and Air Pollution Vulnerability: Review

Author Affiliations

  • 1Information System and Services Division, India Meteorological Department, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Mausam Bhavan, Lodhi Road, New Delhi- 110003, INDIA
  • 2 University School of Environment Management, GGS Indraprastha University, Block-A, Sector- 16 C, Dwarka, New Delhi-110078, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 4, Issue (12), Pages 107-117, December,22 (2015)


The study of climate change and air pollution is very important in present circumstances throughout the world. Several methods including biological methods are being used for monitoring of environment to assess the climate and air pollution vulnerability. Among the biological methods the use of lichens as a bio-indicator has been very popular for such studies. Lichen, being a natural indicator of climate change and air pollution effects, is very useful for these studies particularly in mountain region. Therefore, a review of the work done in different parts of the world to study the climate change, air pollution and heavy metals using lichen as natural indicator has been presented and the gap areas have been identified for further studies in connection to climate change and air pollution vulnerability using lichen as an indicator.


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