6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2020) will be Postponed to 8th and 9th May 2021 Due to COVID-19. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Fate of Zidovudine through Water Treatment with Chlorine: A Kinetic Study

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Civil Engineering, KLS Gogte Institute of Technology, Belgaum-590 008, Karnataka, INDIA
  • 2 Department of Chemistry, KLS Gogte Institute of Technology, Belgaum-590 008, Karnataka, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 3, Issue (9), Pages 50-55, September,22 (2014)


Advances in water quality Analysis indicate that antibiotics are rising pollutants owing in the direction of their unbroken contribution in addition to determination in the aquatic ecosystem still at small concentrations. Researchers across the world reveal that in environmental matrices, indicating conventional treatment methods are inefficient in their removal. To put off this pollution; numerous processes to degrade/ eliminate antibiotics have been calculated. Present report lecture to the current state of knowledge relating to the degradation and elimination processes applied to a specific class of antibiotics. Several inorganic and organic micro pollutants can go through reactions with chlorine. Chlorine reactivity is inadequate in the direction of exacting sites (mainly amines, reduced sulfur moieties) and is frequently pragmatic during chlorination processes. HOCl is the chief hasty chlorine species during chlorination processes. To better know /predict chlorine reaction in the company of micro pollutants, the kinetics and mechanistic in sequence on chlorine reactivity, this Research was taken up. The present study reveals that degradation levels are highest at low pH ranges and able to remove about 50% under standard test conditions.


  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zidovudine (2014)
  2. http://www.rxlist.com/retrovir-drug.htm (2014)
  3. United States Pharmacopoeia (USP-NF XXIV), Rockville MD 20852. United States Pharmacopoeial Convention Inc,3489 (1985)
  4. Raviraj M Kulkarni ,Manjunath S Hangadakar , Ramesh S Malladi, Mahadev S Gudaganatti,Himansu S Biswal, Sharnappa T Nandibewoor.,Transformation of linezolid during water treatment with chlorine – A kinectic study, Indian Journel of Chemical Technology.( 21) (38-43)(2014)
  5. Marie Deborde, Urs von Gunten., Reactions of chlorine with inorganic and organic compounds during water treatment—Kinetics and mechanisms: A critical review, Water Research.,(42) (14) (2008)
  6. Le-Minh N, Khan S.J, Drewes J.E, Stuetz R.M.,Fate of antibiotics during municipal water recycling treatment processes.,Water research 44) (4296)(2010)
  7. Mahadev S. Gudaganatti, Manjunath S. Hanagadakar, Raviraj M. Kulkarni, Ramesh S. Malladi and Rajaram K. Nagarale, Transformation of levofloxacin during water chlorination process: kinetics and pathways, Progress in Reaction Kinetics and Mechanism, (37), 367-368 (2012)
  8. Sharada C.H., Channabasavaraj K.P. and Tamizh T., Mani, Development of a Spectrophotometric Method for the Quantitative Estimation of Zidovudine Concentration in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, KMITL Sci. Tech. ., 10(1), 1-6 (2010)
  9. APHA (American Public Health Association), AWWA (American Water Works Association).and WPCF (Water Pollution Control Facility), Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th Edition,Washington DC, USA (1998)
  10. Basavaiah .K. and Anil Kumar. U R,Simple Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of Zidovudine in pharmaceuticals using Chloramine-T, Methylene Blue and Rhodamine-B reagents, E-Journal of Chemistry, 3(12), 173-181 (2006)
  11. Cimons, Marlene, U.S. Approves Sale of AZT to AIDS Patients, Los Angeles, (1987)
  12. Dodd M.C. and Huang C.H., Environ. Sci. Techn.,(38), 5607 (2004)
  13. Gouthami K, Anusha Priyadarshini K, Nikhila Soundarya A, Pushpa Latha E, Spectrophotometric Method For Degradation Study of Lamivudine(3), 66-69 (2013)
  14. World Health Organization International Agency For Research on Cancer, IARC Monographs On The Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks To Humans, (76) 73-127 (2000)