9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Processing of Rice and Wheat Husk for the Potential utilization of the Material for Pottery Products

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Environmental Science, Lahore College for Women University, Jail road, Lahore PAKISTAN

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 3, Issue (7), Pages 7-14, July,22 (2014)

Abstract

In the past few decades, widespread adoption of green revolution technologies in agricultural practices has increased the crop yield. But this intensive mechanization of agriculture is generating wastes from the irrational applications like wastes produced from rice and wheat harvesting constitute about 81-90% residues as rice and wheat husk. These crop residuesare considered as waste but in actual these are natural and valuable resources reflected as potential black gold. However the management of these residuesis a great challenge and the forgoing disposal method of burning the husks has contributed adversely to the environment and causes greenhouse effect. In the present study we proposed a treatment method for rice and wheat crop residues which has no drawbacks as processing of rice and wheat husk for the potential utilization of the material for pottery products. Some physical properties were also measured both of husk paste and pots these include dry shrinkage rate, moisture content, porosity rate, plasticity, color comparison, drying time, absorption rate, wall strength and biodegradation rate. These properties were measured to assess the quality of product and to establish which husk material is more suitable for pottery. Wall strength of different samples was found out by Vickers hardness test which were in the range of 26.5-33.87HV and the values of biodegradation rate ranged from 15-33days. Due to excellent binding ability and appropriate wall strength both the rice and wheat husk material are applicable to form pots. They took very less time and biodegrade easily reducing pollution effects, loads on disposal sites and preserving the non-renewable petroleum resources.

References

  1. Science and Technology Committee Report, reduction, 9-10, (2007)
  2. Pender J.L., Population growth, agricultural intensification, induced innovation and natural resource sustainability: An application of neoclassical growth theory, economics 19(2), 99-112 (1998)
  3. Akhtar M.R., Impact of resource conservation tefor sustainability of irrigated agriculture in Punjab Pakistan, Journal of Agricultural Research, 44 (3), 239-254 (2006)
  4. Rabbani M.A., Masood M.S., Shinwari Z.K. and Shinozaki K.Y., Genetic analysis of basmati and nonPakistani rice (oryza sativa) Cultivars using Microsatellite markers, Pakistan Journal of Botany, (2010)
  5. Chen Y.K., Agricultural solid waste composition product made from the same, US Patent # 6,869,990 (2005)
  6. Smil V., Crop residues: Agricultura’s Largest Harvest, Bioscience, 49(4), 299-307 (1999)
  7. Sharma A.R., Kharol S.K., Badarinath D., Impact of agriculture crop residue burning on atmospheric aerosol loading – a study over Punjab State, India, Annales Geophysicae, 28(2), 367–379 (2010)
  8. Chen C.H., Method for manufacturing food containers, Patent # 5,897,827 (1999)
  9. ASTM D4318-10, Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils,(2010)
  10. ASTM C326-09, Standard Test Method for Drying and Firing Shrinkages of Ceramic Whiteware Clays,(2011)
  11. ASTM C32401, Standard Test Method for Free Moisture in Ceramic Whiteware Clays, 1061-1068 (2007)
  12. ASTM C378-88, Standard Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired Whiteware Products, 85(2006)
  13. ASTM E384 - 11e1, Standard Test Method for Knoop and Vickers Hardness of Materials, 691-694 (2011)
  14. Evans M.R., Taylor M. and Kuheny J., of biocontainers for greenhouse crops productionTechnology, 20(3), 549-555 (2010)
  15. Ahn H.K., Sauer T.J., Richard T.L. and Glanville T.D., Determination of thermal properties of composting bulking materials, Bioresource Technology(2009)
  16. Kushaha R.L., Vashnav A.S. and Zoerb G.C., Shear strength of wheat straw, Engineering, 25(2), 163-166 (1983)
  17. Mansaray K.G. and Ghaly A.E., Physical and thermochemical properties of rice husk, 19(9), 989-1004 (1997)
  18. Olayemi O.J., Oyi A.R. and Allagh T.S., Comparative evaluation of maize, rice and wheat starch powders as pharmaceutical excipients, Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 7(1), 131-138 (2008)
  19. Zareiforoush H., Komarizadeh M.H. and Alizadeh M.R., Effect of moisture content on some physical properties of paddy grains, Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 1(3), 132-133 (2009)
  20. Lawel S.A. and Ugheoke B.I., Investigation of alphacellulose content of agro-waste products as alternatives for paper production, Assumption University Journal of Technology, 13(4), 258-260 (2010)
  21. Bristow K.L., Measurement of thermal properties and water content of unsaturated sandy soil using dual-probe heat-pulse probes, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 89(13), 75–84 (1998)
  22. Jindal V.K. and Siebenmorgen T.J., Effects of oven drying temperature and drying time on rough rice moisture content determination, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 30(4), 1185-1192 (1999)
  23. Bledzki A.K., Mamun A.A. and Volk J., Physical, chemical and surface properties of wheat husk, rye husk and soft wood and their polypropylene composites, Composites A: Applied Sciences and Manufacturing, 41(2010), 480-488 (2010)
  24. Yang H.S., Kim D.J. and Kim H.J., Rice straw–wood particle composite for sound absorbing wooden construction materials, Bioresource Technology, 86(2003) 117-121 (2002)
  25. Kalia S., Kaith B.S. and Kaur I., Pretreatments of natural fibers and their application as reinforcing material in polymer composites-a review, Polymer Engineering and Science, 49(7), 1253–1272 (2009)
  26. Abbas M., Rehman A., Manzoor F and Farooq A., A quantitative analysis and comparison of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus in rice husk and wheat bran samples, Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Biology, 1(1), 14-15 (2012)