6th International Virtual Congress (IYSC-2020) And Workshop. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Impact of Municipal Rubbish dumps on major soil Nutrients in north of Tunisia

Author Affiliations

  • 1Faculté des sciences de Bizerte, TUNISIE
  • 2 Institut Sylvo-Pastoral de Tabarka, TUNISIE

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 3, Issue (2), Pages 59-69, February,22 (2014)


Technological progress and population growth have led to an evolution of municipal solid waste production. The management of these wastes has long been reduced to their mere burying or deposit on unprepared and/or inadequate land. In these rubbish dumps, bad smell resulting from the fermentation process of organic matter, as well as the presence of high concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, copper, manganese) can create poisoning problems in the environment or to human health. The present study was to evaluate the impact of municipal rubbish dumps in the city of Tabarka (Tunisia) on the surrounding environment. The study considered three different municipal waste disposal sites respectively of 5, 10 and 20 years of age and compared them with pilot soil located about 500 m at the downstream and the upstream of the center of the dump. Samples of soil were taken from various stations. We noticed that the carbon content of the soil was multiplied by four inward from the area adjacent to the center of the waste disposal. Similarly, moving from an uncontaminated to a contaminated location (any station confused), the amount is multiplied by two for nitrogen and by eight for phosphorus. For these three minerals seasonal variation was not statistically significant. For calcium, potassium and sodium, the highest concentrations were recorded in the center of the rubbish dumps. Although these concentrations varied significantly between stations and localities, the highest values were always recorded in the contaminated areas.


  1. Ziadat, A.H. and Mott, H., Assessing solid waste recycling opportunities for closed campuses, Management of Environmental Quality, 16(3), 250-256 (2005)
  2. Igoni A.H., Ayotamuno M.J., Ogagi S.O.T. and Probert S.D., Municipal solid waste in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Appl. Energy, 84, 664-670 (2007)
  3. Frosch R.A., Toward the end of waste: reflections on a new ecology for industry, Daedalus, 125(3), 199-212 (1996)
  4. Blum W.H.E., Problems of soil conservation. Nature and Environment, 40, Council of Europe, Strasbourg (1988)
  5. Ladwani Kiran D., Ladwani Krishna D., Manik Vivek S. and Ramteke Dilip S., Impact of Industrial Effluent Discharge on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Agricultural Soil, International Research Journal of Environment Sciences, 1(3), 32-36 (2012)
  6. Blum W.E.H., Functions of soil for Society and the Environment, Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology. 4(3), 75-79 (2005)
  7. Nortcliff S., Standardization of soil quality attributes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 88, 161-168 (2002)
  8. Vǎrallyay Gy., Soil and its functions. (A talaj és functiȯi). Magyar Tudomǎny The journal of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. XLII (12), 1414-1430. In Hungarian (1997)
  9. Sanchez, P. A. and Swaminathan, M. S., Hunger in Africa: the link between unhealthy people and unhealthy soils, The Lancet, (365), 442-444 (2005)
  10. Karlen D.L., Mausbach M.J., Doran J.W., Cline R.G., Harris R.F. and Schuman G.E., Soil quality: a concept, definition and framework for evaluation, Soil Science Society of America Journal, (61), 4-10 (1997)
  11. Schwartz C., Muller, J.C., and Decroux, J., Guide de la fertilisation raisonnée. Grandes cultures et prairies, Editions France Agricole : 414 (2005)
  12. Cambier P., Schvartz C., Van Oort F., Les contaminations métalliques des agrosystèmes et écosystèmes périindustriels, Versailles (FRA): Éditions QUAE, 115-130 (2009)
  13. Bremner, J.S. and Mulvaney. C. S., Nitrogen –total. Publication of the American Society of Agronomy, (9), 580-623 (1982)
  14. Ryan, J., Garabet, S., Harmsen, K., and Rachid, A., Soil and plant analyses. Manual adapted for the West and North Africa Region, ICARDA Tech. Bulletin (1996)
  15. Van Wesmael B. and Brahy V., La matière organique dans les sols, In CEEW (2007) op. cit., 468-475 (2006)
  16. Amacher M. C., O’Neill K. P., and Perry C. H., Soil Vital Signs: A new Soil Quality Index (SQI) for Assessing Forest Soil Health. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 3-4 (2007)
  17. Swiderski, C., Saby N.P.A., Party J.P., Sauter J., KÖller R., Vandijk P., Lemercier B., Arrouys D., Evoluion des teneurs en carbone organique dans l’horizon de surface des sols cultivés en Alsace, Etude et Gestion des sols, 19(3), 179-192 (2012)
  18. François V., Feuillade G., Skhiri N., Lagier T. and Matejka, G., Indicating the parameters of the state of degradation of municipal solid waste, J. Hazard. Mater., 137, 1008-1015 (2006)
  19. Loué, A., Oligo-éléments en agriculture, Ed. Nathan, Paris (1993)
  20. Vilain, M., La production végétale, volume 2 – La maîtrise technique de la production. Agriculture d’Aujourd’hui, Sciences, Techniques, Applications. Agence francophone pour l’enseignement supérieur et la recherche AUPELF. UREF, Technique et Documentation. Lavoisier (1989)
  21. Hnatyszyn M., and Guais A., Les fourrages et l'éleveur collection Agriculture d'Aujourd'hui, éd. Lavoisier, Editions La France Agricole, 472 (1988)
  22. Ademe, Approche de la qualité des composts de déchets en France. résultat d’une enquête en 1998, 135 (2001)
  23. Johnes, P. J., and Hodgkinson, R. A., Phosphorus loss from agricultural catchments: pathways and implications for management. Soil Use and Man, (14), 175-185 (1998)