6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2020) and Workshop on Intellectual Property Rights. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Effect of Fluoride Exposure on Key Enzymes Activity of Protein - Carbohydrate Metabolism in Gills of Fresh Water Fish Tilapia mossambica, Keenjhar Lake, Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biochemistry, Jinnah University for Women, 5-C Nazimabad, Karachi – 74600, PAKISTAN
  • 2 Department of Botany, Jinnah University for Women, 5- C Nazimabad, Karachi – 74600, PAKISTAN
  • 3 Biochemistry Department, University of Karachi, Karachi - 75270, PAKISTAN

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 2, Issue (8), Pages 24-27, August,22 (2013)


The effect of fluoride on the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in gills of fresh water fish Tilapia mossambica, collected from Keenjhar Lake, Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan at sub-lethal concentration of fluoride was measured. Fluoride is a very common non-metallic trace element found in earth’s crust. It is abundant in our environment but is rarely found in elementary state in nature. Fluoride is known as an inhibitor of various enzymes like lipases, phosphatases and esterases. It disrupts fatty acid oxidation and also inhibits the enzyme activity of acyl-Co-A synthetase, involved in lipid metabolism. Results showed that enzyme activities were significantly altered upon exposure to fluoride due to which protein-carbohydrate metabolism was disturb. Changes in three biomarkers, key enzymes of protein-carbohydrate were related to metabolism of fish at sub-lethal concentration of fluoride. The carbohydrate concentration initially increases and later decreases with the time while a significant depletion of total protein and lipids in gills tissue were observed (p 0.001). It was concluded that fluoride produce toxic effect on physiology of fish gill, which may be associated with increased ionic permeability to gill surface.


  1. Environment Canada and Health Canada, Canadian Environmental Protection Act, Priority Substances List Assessment Report, Inorganic Fluorides, Ottawa, ON, (1993)
  2. Camargo J.A., Fluoride toxicity to aquatic organisms: a review, Chemosphere, 50, 251-264 (2003)
  3. Aziz F., Study of physiological and biochemical parameters of farm raised fish with toxicants [Ph.D. Dissertation], Jinnah University for Women, Pakistan (2012)
  4. O'Riordan J., Water Quality: Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Fluoride, Overview Report. Environment Management Act, 1981, Ministry of Environment, (1990)
  5. Bonga S.E.W. and Lock R.A.C., Netherlands, J. Zool., 42, 478 (1991)
  6. Chitra T., Reddy M.M. and Ramna Rao J.V.R., Levels of muscle and liver tissue enzymes in Channa punctatus Bloch exposed to NaF, Fluoride, 16, 48-51 (1983)
  7. Gupta R., Pathophysiological Consequences to Fresh Water Fish Channa punctatus Induced by Fluoride [Ph.D. Dissertation], Lucknow: University of Lucknow, India,(2003)
  8. Chinoy N.J. and Solomon S.M., Studies on Toxicity of Some Environmental Agents in Mice [MPhil Dissertation], Ahmedabad: Gujarat University, India (1988)
  9. Dousset J.C., Rioufol C., Philibert C. and Bourbon P., Fluoride, 20, 137 (1987)
  10. Gikunju J.K., Fluoride, 25, 37 (1992)
  11. Strochkova L.S. and Zhavoronkov A.A., Fluoride, 16, 181 (1983)
  12. Trinder P., Determination of glucose in blood using glucose oxidase with an alternative oxygen acceptor, Ann. Clin. Biochem,6, 24-27 (1969)
  13. Lowry O.H., Rosenberg N.J., Farr A.L. and Randall, R.J., Biological. Chem.,193, 265 (1951)
  14. Frings C.S. and Dunn R.T., A colorimetric method for determination of total serum lipids based on the sulfo-phospho-vanillin reaction, Am. J. Clin. Pathol53, 89–91 (1970)
  15. Humtsoe N., Davoodi R., Kulkarni B.G and Chavan B., Effect of Arsenic on the Enzymes of the Rohu Carp, Laeo Rohita, The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 17-19 (2007)
  16. Konx E. Greengard, The regulation of some enzymes of nitrogen metabolism. An Introduction to enzyme physiology, Adyan En2, Regnl, 3, 247-313 (1965)
  17. Martin D.W., Mayes P.A. and Rodwell, Harper's Review of biochemistry, 18th Ed, Lange Medical Publications, California (1981)
  18. Pabrowski M., Fluoride Induced alterations in D.M. Protect Metabolism of Wiston Rats, American J. Clinical Nutrition, 24, 895-6 (1986)
  19. Singh M., Biochemical and Cytochemical alterations in Liver and Kidney following experimental fluorosis, Fluoride, 17, 81-83 (1984)
  20. Chenoy N.J., Narayana M.V., Sequerra E., Joshp S.M., Bard J.M. , Purohit R.M., Perikh D.J. and Gihodasare N.B., Studies on effects of fluoride in 36 Villages and Mehsana District, North Gujarat, Fluoride, 25, 101-110 (1992)
  21. Reddy S.L.N., Venugopal N.B.R.K., Reddy A.N. and Ramana Rao J.V., Fluoride induced changes in carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues of fresh water carb Barytelphusa guerini, Econtoxicology and Environmental Safety,18, 59-66 (1989)
  22. Ganeshwade R.M., Rokade P.B. and Sonwane S.R., Impact of dimethoate on protein content in the freshwater fish Puntius ticto (Ham) The Bioscan, 7(1), 153-155 (2012)
  23. Aziz F. and Azmat R., Enzymatic Study of Gills of Fish as Good Biomarkers of Environmental State of Fluoride Pressure, Asian Journal of Chemistry,23(5), 1993-1995(2011)